Veterinary Report by
Test Date: January 27th, 2019
These clinical genetic traits can inform clinical decisions and diagnoses. These traits do not predict a disease state or increased risk for disease. We currently assess one clinical trait: Alanine Aminotransferase Activity.
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) Activity result: Low Normal
Maxwell has one copy of a mutation associated with reduced ALT activity as measured on veterinary blood chemistry panels. Please inform your veterinarian that Maxwell has this genotype, as ALT is often used as an indicator of liver health and Maxwell is likely to have a lower than average resting ALT activity. As such, an increase in Maxwell’s ALT activity could be evidence of liver damage, even if it is within normal limits by standard ALT reference ranges.
More information on Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) Activity:
The liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase, or ALT, is one of several values your veterinarian measures on routine blood work to gauge liver health. Dogs with one or more copies of the “A” allele are likely to have a lower baseline ALT activity (“low normal”) than dogs with zero copies of the “A” allele (“normal”). This means that your veterinarian may recommend blood work to establish an individualized baseline ALT value during an annual wellness exam or before starting certain medications. You and your veterinarian would then be able to monitor your dog for any deviation from this established baseline. Please note that this mutation should never cause an increase in your dog’s ALT activity and does not cause liver disease. If your dog has high ALT activity, please consult your veterinarian.
How to interpret these results:
AT RISK status: Testing positive (AT RISK) is predictive of your dog being affected by this condition, but it is not a final diagnosis nor does it predict when symptoms may occur or the severity of a condition in your dog.
CARRIER status: This indicates the dog has inherited a recessive allele for a genetic trait or mutation. This is not enough to cause symptoms of the disease, but
is important to bear in mind if the dog ever has offspring.
Not AT RISK for any conditions tested.
Condition: Progressive Retinal Atrophy - prcd Progressive rod-cone degeneration (PRCD Exon 1)
Genotype: GA = Carrier
GG = Clear
GA = Carrier
AA = At Risk
Mode of Inheritance: recessive
This retinal disease causes progressive, non-painful vision loss. The retina contains the cells, photoreceptors, that collect information about light: that is, they are the very beginning of how we see. There are two types of photoreceptors: rods, which gather information about light intensity and are the major contributors to night vision, and cones, which distinguish color and are the major contributors to day vision. In nearly all forms of PRA, the rod cells are affected first, leading to night blindness. They are followed by the cone cells, leading to day blindness. The mechanisms by which the photoreceptors degenerate vary depending on the specific mutation that causes PRA. However, the readout is the same: the dog experiences a slow loss of vision, often leading to complete blindness. PRA is a subtle disease: most owners do not even know that their dog has gone blind--you may notice that your dog is reluctant to go down the stairs, or bumping into door frames or corners, or taking a very long time to fetch a ball or toy. A peek at your dog’s eyes in bright light may also reveal a sluggish pupillary constriction, because the retina is no longer telling your pupils that it is letting in too much light; however, definitive diagnosis of PRA requires a trip to the vet. Because of the slow progression of PRA, most dogs adapt very well to their condition. Over time, affected dogs can develop cataracts, thought to be due to buildup of reactive oxygen species and other toxic metabolites released from the degenerating retinal cells. This can lead to other complications and requires close monitoring in consultation with your vet.