Owner Name: Dusty Hallam
Dog Name: Buddy
Sex: Male (intact)
Date of birth: n/a
Breed type: mixed
Breed registration: N/A
Genetic breed identification:
Breed mix:Australian Shepherd: 50.0%
Poodle (Standard): 50.0%
Predicted adult weight: 55 lbs
Calculated from 17 size genes.
Genetic age: n/a (Date of birth unknown)
Human equivalent age based on size, date of birth provided, and other factors
These clinical genetic tools can inform clinical decisions and diagnoses. These tools do not predict increased risk for disease.
Alanine Aminotransferase Activity (GPT)
Buddy's baseline ALT level may be Low Normal
Buddy has two copies of a variant in the GPT gene and is likely to have a lower than average baseline ALT activity. ALT is a commonly used measure of liver health on routine veterinary blood chemistry panels. As such, your veterinarian may want to watch for changes in Buddy's ALT activity above their current, healthy, ALT activity. As an increase above Buddy’s baseline ALT activity could be evidence of liver damage, even if it is within normal limits by standard ALT reference ranges.
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a clinical tool that can be used by veterinarians to better monitor liver health. This result is not associated with liver disease. ALT is one of several values veterinarians measure on routine blood work to evaluate the liver. It is a naturally occurring enzyme located in liver cells that helps break down protein. When the liver is damaged or inflamed, ALT is released into the bloodstream.
Genetic testing is the only way to provide your veterinarian with this clinical tool.
Veterinarians may recommend blood work to establish a baseline ALT value for healthy dogs with one or two copies of this variant.
If Buddy inherited any of the variants that we tested, they will be listed at the top of the Health Report section, along with a description of how to interpret this result. We also include all of the variants that we tested Buddy for that we did not detect the risk variant for.A genetic test is not a diagnosis
This genetic test does not diagnose a disease. Please talk to your vet about your dog’s genetic results, or if you think that your pet may have a health condition or disease.
Buddy inherited one variant that you should learn more about.
Progressive Retinal Atrophy, crd4/cord1
Breed-Relevant Genetic Conditions 15 variants not detected
Additional Genetic Conditions 191 variants not detected
Progressive Retinal Atrophy, crd4/cord1 (RPGRIP1)
Buddy inherited one copy of the variant we tested
Because this variant is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner (meaning dogs need two copies of the variant to develop the disease), Buddy is unlikely to develop this condition due to the variant. This result may be important if you decide to breed this dog - we recommend genetic testing potential mates for this condition.
PRA-CRD4/cord1 is a retinal disease that causes progressive, non-painful vision loss over a 1-2 year period. The retina contains cells, called photoreceptors, that collect information about light and send signals to the brain. There are two types of photoreceptors: rods, for night vision and movement, and cones, for day vision and color. This type of PRA leads to early loss of cone cells, causing day blindness before night blindness.
The earliest ophthalmic signs are typically present by 6 months of age. There is a wide range in the age of when dogs become clinically affected, although the average age is approximately 5 years. Dogs as young as 6 months may be blind, while dogs as old as 10 may still have vision.
Veterinarians use a focused light to examine the pupils. In affected dogs, the pupils will appear more dilated and slower to contract. Your vet may also use a lens to visualize the retina at the back of the eye to look for changes in the optic nerve or blood vessels. You may be referred to a veterinary ophthalmologist for a definitive diagnosis.
Currently, there is no definitive treatment for PRA. Supplements, including antioxidants, have been proposed for management of the disease, but have not been scientifically proven effective.
- Careful monitoring by your veterinarian will be required for the rest of your affected dog's life as secondary complications, including cataracts, can develop.
- With blind dogs, keeping furniture in the same location, making sure they are on a leash in unfamiliar territory, and training them to understand verbal commands are some of the ways to help them at home.
Buddy did not have the variants that we tested for, that are relevant to his breeds:
Buddy did not have the variants that we tested for, in the following conditions that the potential effect on dogs with Buddy’s breeds may not yet be known.
Coefficient of Inbreeding (COI)
- Genetic Result:
Our genetic COI measures the proportion of your dog’s genome (her genes) where the genes on the mother’s side are identical by descent to those on the father’s side. The higher your dog’s coefficient of inbreeding (the percentage), the more inbred your dog is.
Your Dog’s COI
This graph represents where your dog’s inbreeding levels fall on a scale compared to both dogs with a similar breed makeup to her (the blue bars) and all purebred dogs (the grey line).
More on the Science
Embark scientists, along with our research partners at Cornell University, have shown the impact of inbreeding on longevity and fertility and developed a state-of-the-art, peer-reviewed method for accurately measuring COI and predicting average COI in litters.
- Sams & Boyko 2019 "Fine-Scale Resolution of Runs of Homozygosity Reveal Patterns of Inbreeding and Substantial Overlap with Recessive Disease Genotypes in Domestic Dogs"
- Chu et al 2019 "Inbreeding depression causes reduced fecundity in Golden Retrievers"
- Yordy et al 2019 "Body size, inbreeding, and lifespan in domestic dogs"
Embark Veterinary is a canine genetics company offering research-grade genetic tests to pet owners and breeders. Every Embark test examines over 200,000 genetic markers, and provides results for over 220 genetic health conditions, breed identification, clinical tools, and more.
Embark is a research partner of the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine and collaborates with scientists and registries to accelerate genetic research in canine health. We make it easy for customers and vets to understand, share and make use of their dog’s unique genetic profile to improve canine health and happiness.
Learn more at embarkvet.com
Veterinarians and hospitals can send inquiries to firstname.lastname@example.org.