Owner Name: Michelle Mast
Dog Name: Bella
Sex: Female (intact)
Date of birth: 12/13/20
Breed type: purebred
Breed: Australian Shepherd
Breed registration: American Stock Dog Registry (ASDR)
Genetic breed identification:
Australian Shepherd Group
Breed mix:Miniature/MAS-type Australian Shepherd: 100.0%
Predicted adult weight: 27 lbs
Calculated from 17 size genes.
Genetic age: 22 human years
Human equivalent age based on size, date of birth provided, and other factors
These clinical genetic tools can inform clinical decisions and diagnoses. These tools do not predict increased risk for disease.
Alanine Aminotransferase Activity (GPT)
Bella's baseline ALT level may be Low Normal
Bella has two copies of a variant in the GPT gene and is likely to have a lower than average baseline ALT activity. ALT is a commonly used measure of liver health on routine veterinary blood chemistry panels. As such, your veterinarian may want to watch for changes in Bella's ALT activity above their current, healthy, ALT activity. As an increase above Bella’s baseline ALT activity could be evidence of liver damage, even if it is within normal limits by standard ALT reference ranges.
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a clinical tool that can be used by veterinarians to better monitor liver health. This result is not associated with liver disease. ALT is one of several values veterinarians measure on routine blood work to evaluate the liver. It is a naturally occurring enzyme located in liver cells that helps break down protein. When the liver is damaged or inflamed, ALT is released into the bloodstream.
Genetic testing is the only way to provide your veterinarian with this clinical tool.
Veterinarians may recommend blood work to establish a baseline ALT value for healthy dogs with one or two copies of this variant.
If Bella inherited any of the variants that we tested, they will be listed at the top of the Health Report section, along with a description of how to interpret this result. We also include all of the variants that we tested Bella for that we did not detect the risk variant for.A genetic test is not a diagnosis
This genetic test does not diagnose a disease. Please talk to your vet about your dog’s genetic results, or if you think that your pet may have a health condition or disease.
Bella is at increased risk for one genetic health condition.
MDR1 Drug Sensitivity
Breed-Relevant Genetic Conditions 9 variants not detected
Additional Genetic Conditions 209 variants not detected
MDR1 Drug Sensitivity (ABCB1)
Bella inherited both copies of the variant we tested
Bella is at increased risk for MDR1
Bella has two copies of a variant at the ABCB1 gene and is at risk for having adverse reactions to certain drugs. Please inform your veterinarian immediately, as the dosages for a wide variety of drugs may need to be reduced (or those drugs avoided entirely) in Bella. When Bella is sick, your vet should determine which drugs to use and in what quantities based on Bella's diagnosis, this MDR1 information, and other factors.
Sensitivity to certain classes of drugs, notably the parasiticide ivermectin, as well as certain gastroprotectant and anti-cancer medications, occurs in dogs with a mutation in the ABCB1 gene.
Symptoms arise after a dog has received an MDR1 problem drug or dosage, and can range from vomiting and diarrhea to lethargy, seizures, or coma.
MDR1 often presents in young adulthood, only because this is most commonly when a dog is first exposed to a problem drug like high dose ivermectin or acepromazine.
This is usually a retroactive diagnosis after a dog has an adverse reaction to a problem drug--however, genetic testing could help you avoid a first reaction altogether.
MDR1 is perfectly avoidable simply by avoiding the problem drugs, or problem dosages.
- Review the MDR1 Problem Drug List as described by Washington State University and notify your veterinarian to flag this in your dog’s file!
- Farm dogs with MDR1 may also benefit if they are either kept away from herds where ivermectin is used as a routine antiparasitic, or if another form of antiparasitic is used in areas that they are working.
Bella did not have the variants that we tested for, that are relevant to her breed:
Bella did not have the variants that we tested for, in the following conditions that the potential effect on dogs with Bella’s breed may not yet be known.
Coefficient of Inbreeding (COI)
- Genetic Result:
Our genetic COI measures the proportion of your dog’s genome (her genes) where the genes on the mother’s side are identical by descent to those on the father’s side. The higher your dog’s coefficient of inbreeding (the percentage), the more inbred your dog is.
Your Dog’s COI
This graph represents where your dog’s inbreeding levels fall on a scale compared to both dogs with a similar breed makeup to her (the blue bars) and all purebred dogs (the grey line).
More on the Science
Embark scientists, along with our research partners at Cornell University, have shown the impact of inbreeding on longevity and fertility and developed a state-of-the-art, peer-reviewed method for accurately measuring COI and predicting average COI in litters.
- Sams & Boyko 2019 "Fine-Scale Resolution of Runs of Homozygosity Reveal Patterns of Inbreeding and Substantial Overlap with Recessive Disease Genotypes in Domestic Dogs"
- Chu et al 2019 "Inbreeding depression causes reduced fecundity in Golden Retrievers"
- Yordy et al 2019 "Body size, inbreeding, and lifespan in domestic dogs"
Embark Veterinary is a canine genetics company offering research-grade genetic tests to pet owners and breeders. Every Embark test examines over 200,000 genetic markers, and provides results for over 220 genetic health conditions, breed identification, clinical tools, and more.
Embark is a research partner of the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine and collaborates with scientists and registries to accelerate genetic research in canine health. We make it easy for customers and vets to understand, share and make use of their dog’s unique genetic profile to improve canine health and happiness.
Learn more at embarkvet.com
Veterinarians and hospitals can send inquiries to email@example.com.