Owner Name: Wendy Wiederin
Dog Name: Cogburn
Sex: Male (intact)
Date of birth: 07/25/20
Breed type: purebred
Breed registration: N/A
Genetic breed identification:
Breed mix:Poodle (Standard): 51.7%
Poodle (Small): 48.3%
Predicted adult weight: 49 lbs
Calculated from 17 size genes.
Life stage: Young adult
Based on date of birth provided.
These clinical genetic tools can inform clinical decisions and diagnoses. These tools do not predict increased risk for disease.
Alanine Aminotransferase Activity (GPT)
Cogburn's baseline ALT level is likely to be Normal
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a clinical tool that can be used by veterinarians to better monitor liver health. This result is not associated with liver disease. ALT is one of several values veterinarians measure on routine blood work to evaluate the liver. It is a naturally occurring enzyme located in liver cells that helps break down protein. When the liver is damaged or inflamed, ALT is released into the bloodstream.
Genetic testing is the only way to provide your veterinarian with this clinical tool.
Veterinarians may recommend blood work to establish a baseline ALT value for healthy dogs with one or two copies of this variant.
If Cogburn inherited any of the variants that we tested, they will be listed at the top of the Health Report section, along with a description of how to interpret this result. We also include all of the variants that we tested Cogburn for that we did not detect the risk variant for.A genetic test is not a diagnosis
This genetic test does not diagnose a disease. Please talk to your vet about your dog’s genetic results, or if you think that your pet may have a health condition or disease.
Cogburn is at increased risk for one genetic health condition.
Chondrodystrophy and Intervertebral Disc Disease, CDDY/IVDD, Type I IVDD
Breed-Relevant Genetic Conditions 6 variants not detected
Additional Genetic Conditions 187 variants not detected
Chondrodystrophy and Intervertebral Disc Disease, CDDY/IVDD, Type I IVDD (FGF4 retrogene - CFA12)
Cogburn inherited one copy of the variant we tested
Cogburn is at increased risk for Type I IVDD
Cogburn has one copy of an FGF4 retrogene on chromosome 12. In some breeds such as Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, and Dachshunds (among others) this variant is found in nearly all dogs. While those breeds are known to have an elevated risk of IVDD, many dogs in those breeds never develop IVDD. For mixed breed dogs and purebreds of other breeds where this variant is not as common, risk for Type I IVDD is greater for individuals with this variant than for similar dogs.
Type I Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD) is a back/spine issue that refers to a health condition affecting the discs that act as cushions between vertebrae. With Type I IVDD, affected dogs can have a disc event where it ruptures or herniates towards the spinal cord. This pressure on the spinal cord causes neurologic signs which can range from a wobbly gait to impairment of movement. Chondrodystrophy (CDDY) refers to the relative proportion between a dog’s legs and body, wherein the legs are shorter and the body longer. There are multiple different variants that can cause a markedly chondrodystrophic appearance as observed in Dachshunds and Corgis. However, this particular variant is the only one known to also increase the risk for IVDD.
Signs of CDDY are recognized in puppies as it affects body shape. IVDD is usually first recognized in adult dogs, with breed specific differences in age of onset.
Research indicates that dogs with one or two copies of this variant have a similar risk of developing IVDD. However, there are some breeds (e.g. Beagles and Cocker Spaniels, among others) where this variant has been passed down to nearly all dogs of the breed and most do not show overt clinical signs of the disorder. This suggests that there are other genetic and environmental factors (such as weight, mobility, and family history) that contribute to an individual dog’s risk of developing clinical IVDD. Signs of IVDD include neck or back pain, a change in your dog's walking pattern (including dragging of the hind limbs), and paralysis. These signs can be mild to severe, and if your dog starts exhibiting these signs, you should schedule an appointment with your veterinarian for a diagnosis.
For CDDY, dogs with one copy of this variant may have mild proportional differences in their leg length. Dogs with two copies of this variant will often have visually longer bodies and shorter legs. For IVDD, a neurological exam will be performed on any dog showing suspicious signs. Based on the result of this exam, radiographs to detect the presence of calcified discs or advanced imaging (MRI/CT) to detect a disc rupture may be recommended.
IVDD is treated differently based on the severity of the disease. Mild cases often respond to medical management which includes cage rest and pain management, while severe cases are often treated with surgical intervention. Both conservative and surgical treatment should be followed up with rehabilitation and physical therapy.
- Follow veterinary advice for diet, weight management, and daily exercise. Overweight dogs and those with insufficient exercise are thought to be at higher risk of developing clinical disease.
- Ramps up to furniture, avoiding flights of stairs, and using a harness on walks will also help minimize some of the risk of an IVDD event by reducing stress on the back.
- In breeds where this variant is extremely common, this genetic health result should not be a deciding factor when evaluating a dog for breeding or adoption purposes.
Cogburn did not have the variants that we tested for, that are relevant to his breed:
Cogburn did not have the variants that we tested for, in the following conditions that the potential effect on dogs with Cogburn’s breed may not yet be known.
Coefficient of Inbreeding (COI)
- Genetic Result:
Our genetic COI measures the proportion of your dog’s genome (her genes) where the genes on the mother’s side are identical by descent to those on the father’s side. The higher your dog’s coefficient of inbreeding (the percentage), the more inbred your dog is.
Your Dog’s COI
This graph represents where your dog’s inbreeding levels fall on a scale compared to both dogs with a similar breed makeup to her (the blue bars) and all purebred dogs (the grey line).
More on the Science
Embark scientists, along with our research partners at Cornell University, have shown the impact of inbreeding on longevity and fertility and developed a state-of-the-art, peer-reviewed method for accurately measuring COI and predicting average COI in litters.
- Sams & Boyko 2019 "Fine-Scale Resolution of Runs of Homozygosity Reveal Patterns of Inbreeding and Substantial Overlap with Recessive Disease Genotypes in Domestic Dogs"
- Chu et al 2019 "Inbreeding depression causes reduced fecundity in Golden Retrievers"
- Yordy et al 2019 "Body size, inbreeding, and lifespan in domestic dogs"
Embark Veterinary is a canine genetics company offering research-grade genetic tests to pet owners and breeders. Every Embark test examines over 200,000 genetic markers, and provides results for over 220 genetic health conditions, breed identification, clinical tools, and more.
Embark is a research partner of the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine and collaborates with scientists and registries to accelerate genetic research in canine health. We make it easy for customers and vets to understand, share and make use of their dog’s unique genetic profile to improve canine health and happiness.
Learn more at embarkvet.com
Veterinarians and hospitals can send inquiries to firstname.lastname@example.org.