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Toby

Mixed Breed

“Adopted from VT, originally rescued from MS. We were initially curious about his background because the back half of his body has very little hair. Oddly enough, nothing in his results show why this might be and the vet doesn't think it's allergies or stress, so I guess he's just unique! In general, he's a clumsy, curious snuggle-bug with a stubborn streak who loves his two humans equally and wants to be included in everything they do (unless it involves other dogs).”

Current Location
Boston, Massachusetts, USA
From
Warren, VT, USA

This dog has been viewed 79 times and been given 0 wags

Genetic Breed Result

Learn how it’s done

Mixed Breed

38.6% Pomeranian
21.6% Dachshund
16.0% Chihuahua
12.4% Yorkshire Terrier
11.4% Russell-type Terrier
Pomeranian Pomeranian
The Pomeranian is a cocky, animated companion with an extroverted personality.
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Dachshund Dachshund
The Dachshund, meaning “badger dog” in German, is a lively breed with a friendly personality and a great sense of smell. Known for their long and low bodies, they are spirited hunters that excel in both above and below-ground work. They come in three different coat varieties (smooth, wirehaired or longhaired) and can be miniature or standard size.
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Chihuahua Chihuahua
Chihuahuas have a huge personality that defies their tiny frame, known to be highly active and intelligent canines.
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Yorkshire Terrier Yorkshire Terrier
Petite but proud, the Yorkshire terrier is a popular toy breed with a silky, low-shedding coat.
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Russell-type Terrier Russell-type Terrier
These small, energetic terriers, developed in 19th century England for hunting small game, are now some of the best agility dogs around.
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Start a conversation! Message this dog’s humans.

Genetic Stats


Wolfiness

0.0 % LOW Learn More

Predicted Adult Weight
Genetic Age
27 human years Learn More
Based on the date of birth provided

Breed Mix Matches

Explore other Embark dogs who have breed mixes that are similar to Toby’s.
A Mix Match of 100 means they are the exact same breed mix!

DNA Breed Origins

What’s this?
Breed colors:
Pomeranian
Dachshund
Chihuahua
Yorkshire Terrier
Russell-type Terrier

Would you like more information? Have you found a lost dog wearing an Embark dog tag? You can contact us at:

 
Family Tree From Embark PARENTS GRANDPARENTS GREAT GRANDPARENTS Mixed Pomeranian mix Dachshund mix Chihuahua / Yorkshire Terrier mix Pomeranian Pomeranian / Russell-type Terrier mix Dachshund Dachshund mix Chihuahua Yorkshire Terrier Pomeranian Pomeranian Pomeranian Russell-type Terrier

Breed Reveal Video

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Our algorithms predict this is the most likely family tree to explain Toby’s breed mix, but this family tree may not be the only possible one.

Summary

0
AT RISK
0
CARRIER
181
CLEAR
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Clinical Tools

These clinical tools are valuable to your veterinarian and can inform the clinical decisions and diagnoses they make.

Alanine Aminotransferase Activity result: Normal
Toby has two normal alleles at ALT.

Genetic Health Conditions

A genetic health condition indicates a genetic mutation that increases the risk that an animal develops a specific disease.

Not At Risk

Good news! Toby did not test positive for any of the genetic conditions that Embark screens for.

It is still important to let your veterinarian know these results because they could help guide Toby’s diagnosis and treatment if he gets sick in the future.

Not A Carrier

Good news! Toby is not a carrier for any of the genetic conditions that Embark tests for.

Common Conditions

Good news! Toby tested clear for 18 genetic conditions that are common in his breed mix.
Condition List

Congenital Macrothrombocytopenia
(TUBB1 Exon 1, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Variant)
Blood

This is a benign disorder of platelet production that leads to abnormally large, sparse platelets. Affected dogs typically do not suffer any ill effects from the size or …

Seen in Chihuahuas, but not Toby.

Methemoglobinemia
CYB5R3
Blood

Oxygen is carried in the blood by hemoglobin. Methemoglobin forms when hemoglobin iron is oxidized, and it cannot carry oxygen in the blood. Methemoglobinemia is a diseas…

Seen in Pomeranians, but not Toby.

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
(PRKDC)
Immune

Due to a poorly functioning immune system, affected dogs require close monitoring for signs of infection. SCID dogs cannot produce functional B-lymphocytes, the cells res…

Seen in Russell-type Terriers, but not Toby.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy, rcd3
Rod-cone dysplasia, rcd3 (PDE6A)
Eyes

This retinal disease causes progressive, non-painful vision loss. The retina contains the cells, photoreceptors, that collect information about light: that is, they are t…

Seen in Pomeranians, but not Toby.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy, prcd
Progressive rod-cone degeneration (PRCD Exon 1)
Eyes

This retinal disease causes progressive, non-painful vision loss. The retina contains the cells, photoreceptors, that collect information about light: that is, they are t…

Seen in Chihuahuas, Yorkshire Terriers, but not Toby.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy - crd4/cord1
(RPGRIP1)
Eyes

This retinal disease causes progressive, non-painful vision loss. The retina contains the cells, photoreceptors, that collect information about light: that is, they are t…

Seen in Dachshunds, Chihuahuas, but not Toby.

Primary Lens Luxation
(ADAMTS17)
Eyes

This surgically correctable condition causes the lens to spontaneously detach from its normal residence within the pupil, leading to reduced visual acuity and irritation …

Seen in Yorkshire Terriers, Russell-type Terriers, but not Toby.

Hyperuricosuria and Hyperuricemia or Urolithiasis, HUU
(SLC2A9)
Kidney and Bladder

This condition causes kidney and bladder stones composed of urate; if caught early, it is responsive to dietary management. Uric acid is an intermediate of purine metabol…

Seen in Pomeranians, Russell-type Terriers, but not Toby.

Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIA, Sanfilippo Syndrome Type A, MPS IIIA
(SGSH Exon 6 Variant 1)
Multisystem

A type of lysosomal storage disease, this can cause skeletal abnormalities, growth retardation, and gait abnormalities, and can require close monitoring and special measu…

Seen in Dachshunds, but not Toby.

Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis 1, NCL 1
(PPT1 Exon 8)
Multisystem

This form of lysosomal storage disease can cause juvenile to adult-onset neurologic signs, depending on the affected gene. While lipofuscin is commonly observed in the ti…

Seen in Dachshunds, but not Toby.

Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis 2, NCL 2
(TPP1 Exon 4)
Multisystem

This form of lysosomal storage disease can cause juvenile to adult-onset neurologic signs, depending on the affected gene. While lipofuscin is commonly observed in the ti…

Seen in Dachshunds, but not Toby.

Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis
(MFSD8)
Multisystem

This form of lysosomal storage disease can cause juvenile to adult-onset neurologic signs, depending on the affected gene. While lipofuscin is commonly observed in the ti…

Seen in Chihuahuas, but not Toby.

Autosomal Recessive Amelogenesis Imperfecta, Familial Enamel Hypoplasia
(Parson Russell Terrier Variant)
Other Systems

A disease of the tooth enamel production, affected dogs have characteristic small, pointy teeth that discolor rapidly. Amelogenesis is the formation and deposition of ena…

Seen in Russell-type Terriers, but not Toby.

Spinocerebellar Ataxia, Late-Onset Ataxia, LoSCA
(CAPN1)
Brain and Spinal Cord

Known as the "oldest" (even reptiles and more ancient species have them!) part of the brain, the cerebellum fine-tunes motor signals from the brain to the muscles, allowi…

Seen in Russell-type Terriers, but not Toby.

Spinocerebellar Ataxia with Myokymia and/or Seizures
(KCNJ10)
Brain and Spinal Cord

Known as the "oldest" (even reptiles and more ancient species have them!) part of the brain, the cerebellum fine-tunes motor signals from the brain to the muscles, allowi…

Seen in Chihuahuas, Russell-type Terriers, but not Toby.

Hereditary Vitamin D-Resistant Rickets
(VDR)
Skeletal

A disease of insufficient calcium absorption, this can cause lameness and skeletal abnormalities; however, if diagnosed early it can be successfully managed. Calcium abso…

Seen in Pomeranians, but not Toby.

Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Brittle Bone Disease
(SERPINH1)
Skeletal

A disease of bone strength and flexibilty, affected dogs often present to the vet for spontaneous bone fractures, tooth fractures and loss, and joint pain; these symptoms…

Seen in Dachshunds, but not Toby.

Chondrodystrophy and Intervertebral Disc Disease, CDDY/IVDD, Type I IVDD
(FGF4 retrogene - CFA12)
Skeletal

Chondrodystrophy (CDDY) refers to the "long and low" body shape characteristic of many dog breeds including Dachshunds and Corgis. Recently, a mutation was discovered tha…

Seen in Dachshunds, Chihuahuas, Russell-type Terriers, but not Toby.

Other Conditions:
Clear of 163

Toby is clear of 163 other genetic conditions that Embark tests for.
Explore the genetics behind your dog’s appearance, size, and genetic diversity.
Base Coat Color

Base Coat Color

Dark or Light Fur
E (Extension) Locus
Can have dark fur
Brown or Black Pigment
B (Brown) Locus
Black or gray fur and skin
Color Dilution
D (Dilute) Locus
Fur and skin have lighter (dilute) coloration
Coat Color Modifiers

Coat Color Modifiers

Hidden Patterning
K (Dominant Black) Locus
More likely to have patterned fur
Body Pattern
A (Agouti) Locus
Black/Brown and tan coat color pattern
Facial Fur Pattern
E (Extension) Locus
No dark mask or grizzle facial fur patterns
Saddle Tan
Likely saddle tan patterned
Merle
M (Merle) Locus
Unlikely to have merle pattern
Other Coat Traits

Other Coat Traits

Furnishings LINKAGE
Likely furnished (mustache, beard, and/or eyebrows)
Coat Length
Likely long coat
Shedding
Likely light shedding
Coat Texture
Likely wavy coat
Hairlessness (Xolo type) LINKAGE
Very unlikely to be hairless
Hairlessness (Terrier type)
Very unlikely to be hairless
Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 2 LINKAGE
Likely not albino
Other Body Features

Other Body Features

Muzzle Length
Likely medium or long muzzle
Tail Length
Likely normal-length tail
Hind Dew Claws
Unlikely to have hind dew claws
Back Muscling & Bulk (Large Breed)
Likely normal muscling
Eye Color LINKAGE
Less likely to have blue eyes
Body Size

Body Size

Body Size 1
Smaller
Body Size 2
Intermediate
Body Size 3
Smaller
Body Size 4
Smaller
Body Size 5
Larger
Performance

Performance

Altitude Adaptation
Normal altitude tolerance
Appetite LINKAGE
Normal food motivation

Through Toby’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace his mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that his ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

C2

Haplotype

C42/54/55

Map

C2

Toby’s Haplogroup

C2 is a very old female lineage found more commonly among English Setters, English Bulldogs, and American Eskimo Dogs. We also see C2 in village dogs in South Asia. Rather than having a few characteristic breeds representing this lineage particularly well, it is present in a few uncommon individuals of many different breeds. Unlike some European breed lineages that have seen skyrocketing popularity along the path to the modern dogs we see today, C2 tends to reflect the deep history of man's best friend.

C42/54/55

Toby’s Haplotype

Part of the C2 haplogroup, this haplotype occurs most frequently in mixed breed dogs.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

You can often find his haplogroup in the lovable English Bulldog.

Through Toby’s Y-chromosome we can trace his father’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that his ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

A1a

Haplotype

H1a.4

Map

A1a

Toby’s Haplogroup

Some of the wolves that became the original dogs in Central Asia around 15,000 years ago came from this long and distinguished line of male dogs. After domestication, they followed their humans from Asia to Europe and then didn't stop there. They took root in Europe, eventually becoming the dogs that founded the Vizsla breed 1,000 years ago. The Vizsla is a Central European hunting dog, and all male Vizslas descend from this line. During the Age of Exploration, like their owners, these pooches went by the philosophy, "Have sail, will travel!" From the windy plains of Patagonia to the snug and homey towns of the American Midwest, the beaches of a Pacific paradise, and the broad expanse of the Australian outback, these dogs followed their masters to the outposts of empires. Whether through good fortune or superior genetics, dogs from the A1a lineage traveled the globe and took root across the world. Now you find village dogs from this line frolicking on Polynesian beaches, hanging out in villages across the Americas, and scavenging throughout Old World settlements. You can also find this "prince of patrilineages" in breeds as different as German Shepherds, Golden Retrievers, Pugs, Border Collies, Scottish Terriers, and Irish Wolfhounds. No male wolf line has been as successful as the A1a line!

H1a.4

Toby’s Haplotype

Part of the large A1a haplogroup, this haplotype occurs in village dogs in Colombia. It is common in small dogs like Dachshund, Miniature Dachshund, and Chihuahuas, but can also be found in larger breeds like Golden Retrievers.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

Dogs with A1a lineage travelled during European Colonial times.