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“Toby”
Tobias

Pomsky

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Genetic Breed Result

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Siberian Husky

Bred initially in Northern Siberia, the Siberian Husky is a medium-sized working dog who is quick and light on their feet. Their moderately compact and well furred body, erect ears and brush tail suggest their Northern heritage. Huskies are very active and energetic and are known for being long distance sled dogs.

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Pomeranian

The Pomeranian is a cocky, animated companion with an extroverted personality.

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Genetic Stats

Predicted Adult Weight

39 lbs

Genetic Age
19 human years

Based on the date of birth provided

DNA Breed Origins

Breed colors:
Siberian Husky
Pomeranian

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Health Summary

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Toby inherited one variant that you should learn more about.

And one variant that you should tell your vet about.

Degenerative Myelopathy, DM

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Toby inherited one copy of the variant we tested

What does this result mean?

Because this variant is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner (meaning dogs need two copies of the variant to develop the disease), Toby is unlikely to develop this condition due to the variant.

Impact on Breeding

Your dog carries this variant and will pass it on to ~50% of his offspring. You can email breeders@embarkvet.com to discuss with a genetic counselor how the genotype results should be applied to a breeding program.

What is Degenerative Myelopathy, DM?

The dog equivalent of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or Lou Gehrig’s disease, DM is a progressive degenerative disorder of the spinal cord. Because the nerves that control the hind limbs are the first to degenerate, the most common clinical signs are back muscle wasting and gait abnormalities.

ALT Activity

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Toby inherited one copy of the variant we tested

Why is this important to your vet?

Toby has one copy of a variant associated with reduced ALT activity as measured on veterinary blood chemistry panels. Please inform your veterinarian that Toby has this genotype, as ALT is often used as an indicator of liver health and Toby is likely to have a lower than average resting ALT activity. As such, an increase in Toby’s ALT activity could be evidence of liver damage, even if it is within normal limits by standard ALT reference ranges.

What is ALT Activity?

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a clinical tool that can be used by veterinarians to better monitor liver health. This result is not associated with liver disease. ALT is one of several values veterinarians measure on routine blood work to evaluate the liver. It is a naturally occurring enzyme located in liver cells that helps break down protein. When the liver is damaged or inflamed, ALT is released into the bloodstream.

Breed-Relevant Genetic Conditions

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Methemoglobinemia (CYB5R3)

Identified in Pomeranians

Progressive Retinal Atrophy, rcd3 (PDE6A)

Identified in Pomeranians

X-Linked Progressive Retinal Atrophy 1, XL-PRA1 (RPGR)

Identified in Siberian Huskies

Urate Kidney & Bladder Stones (SLC2A9)

Identified in Pomeranians

GM1 Gangliosidosis (GLB1 Exon 15, Alaskan Husky Variant)

Identified in Siberian Huskies

Oculocutaneous Albinism, OCA (SLC45A2, Small Breed Variant)

Identified in Pomeranians

Hereditary Vitamin D-Resistant Rickets (VDR)

Identified in Pomeranians

Additional Genetic Conditions

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Explore the genetics behind your dog’s appearance and size.

Coat Color

Coat Color

Other Coat Traits

Other Coat Traits

Other Body Features

Other Body Features

Body Size

Body Size

Performance

Performance

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Through Toby’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace his mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that his ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

A1d

Haplotype

A91/11

Map

A1d

Tobias’s Haplogroup

This female lineage can be traced back about 15,000 years to some of the original Central Asian wolves that were domesticated into modern dogs. The early females that represent this lineage were likely taken into Eurasia, where they spread rapidly. As a result, many modern breed and village dogs from the Americas, Africa, through Asia and down into Oceania belong to this group! This widespread lineage is not limited to a select few breeds, but the majority of Rottweilers, Afghan Hounds and Wirehaired Pointing Griffons belong to it. It is also the most common female lineage among Papillons, Samoyeds and Jack Russell Terriers. Considering its occurrence in breeds as diverse as Afghan Hounds and Samoyeds, some of this is likely ancient variation. But because of its presence in many modern European breeds, much of its diversity likely can be attributed to much more recent breeding.

A91/11

Tobias’s Haplotype

Part of the large A1d haplogroup, this common haplotype occurs in village dogs all over the world. Among the 29 breeds that we have detected it in to date, the most frequent breeds we see expressing it are Afghan Hounds, Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs, and Borzois.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

The vast majority of Rottweilers have the A1d haplogroup.

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Through Toby’s Y-chromosome we can trace his father’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that his ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

A1a

Haplotype

H1a.45

Map

A1a

Tobias’s Haplogroup

Some of the wolves that became the original dogs in Central Asia around 15,000 years ago came from this long and distinguished line of male dogs. After domestication, they followed their humans from Asia to Europe and then didn't stop there. They took root in Europe, eventually becoming the dogs that founded the Vizsla breed 1,000 years ago. The Vizsla is a Central European hunting dog, and all male Vizslas descend from this line. During the Age of Exploration, like their owners, these pooches went by the philosophy, "Have sail, will travel!" From the windy plains of Patagonia to the snug and homey towns of the American Midwest, the beaches of a Pacific paradise, and the broad expanse of the Australian outback, these dogs followed their masters to the outposts of empires. Whether through good fortune or superior genetics, dogs from the A1a lineage traveled the globe and took root across the world. Now you find village dogs from this line frolicking on Polynesian beaches, hanging out in villages across the Americas, and scavenging throughout Old World settlements. You can also find this "prince of patrilineages" in breeds as different as German Shepherds, Golden Retrievers, Pugs, Border Collies, Scottish Terriers, and Irish Wolfhounds. No male wolf line has been as successful as the A1a line!

H1a.45

Tobias’s Haplotype

Part of the A1a haplogroup, this haplotype occurs most frequently in mixed breed dogs.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

Dogs with A1a lineage travelled during European Colonial times.

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