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Titan

Mixed Ancestry

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Place of Birth

Michigan, USA

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Genetic Breed Result

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Siberian Husky

Bred initially in Northern Siberia, the Siberian Husky is a medium-sized working dog who is quick and light on their feet. Their moderately compact and well furred body, erect ears and brush tail suggest their Northern heritage. Huskies are very active and energetic and are known for being long distance sled dogs.

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Pomeranian

The Pomeranian is a cocky, animated companion with an extroverted personality.

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Alaskan Malamute

The Alaskan Malamute is a large, fluffy spitz breed recognized as being one of the most ancient breeds of dogs. The forebears to the modern Malamute crossed the Bering Strait with their owners over 4,000 years ago. Their size, thick coat, and work drive make them ideal dogs for pulling sleds, but they also make amicable companions.

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DNA Breed Origins

Breed colors:
Siberian Husky
Pomeranian
Alaskan Malamute

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Health Summary

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Titan inherited one variant that you should learn more about.

And one variant that you should tell your vet about.

Copper Toxicosis (Accumulating)

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Titan inherited one copy of the variant we tested

What does this result mean?

We do not know whether this increases the risk that Titan will develop Copper Toxicosis (Accumulating).

Scientific Basis

Research studies for this variant have been based on dogs of other breeds. Not enough dogs with Titan's breed have been studied to know whether or not this variant will increase Titan's risk of developing this disease.

Impact on Breeding

Research into the clinical impact of this variant is ongoing. We recommend tracking this genetic result and incidence of Copper Toxicosis (Accumulating) in your breeding program and related dogs.

What is Copper Toxicosis (Accumulating)?

Copper toxicosis is a condition in which affected dogs have difficulty excreting excess copper from their liver. The liver accumulates more copper until it eventually begins failing. Multiple genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of this condition.

ALT Activity

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Titan inherited one copy of the variant we tested

Why is this important to your vet?

Titan has one copy of a variant associated with reduced ALT activity as measured on veterinary blood chemistry panels. Please inform your veterinarian that Titan has this genotype, as ALT is often used as an indicator of liver health and Titan is likely to have a lower than average resting ALT activity. As such, an increase in Titan’s ALT activity could be evidence of liver damage, even if it is within normal limits by standard ALT reference ranges.

What is ALT Activity?

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a clinical tool that can be used by veterinarians to better monitor liver health. This result is not associated with liver disease. ALT is one of several values veterinarians measure on routine blood work to evaluate the liver. It is a naturally occurring enzyme located in liver cells that helps break down protein. When the liver is damaged or inflamed, ALT is released into the bloodstream.

Breed-Relevant Genetic Conditions

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Factor VII Deficiency (F7 Exon 5)

Identified in Alaskan Malamutes

Methemoglobinemia (CYB5R3)

Identified in Pomeranians

Progressive Retinal Atrophy, rcd3 (PDE6A)

Identified in Pomeranians

X-Linked Progressive Retinal Atrophy 1, XL-PRA1 (RPGR)

Identified in Siberian Huskies

Day Blindness (CNGB3 Deletion, Alaskan Malamute Variant)

Identified in Alaskan Malamutes and Siberian Huskies

Urate Kidney & Bladder Stones (SLC2A9)

Identified in Pomeranians

Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia, PCD (NME5, Alaskan Malamute Variant)

Identified in Alaskan Malamutes

GM1 Gangliosidosis (GLB1 Exon 15, Alaskan Husky Variant)

Identified in Siberian Huskies

Degenerative Myelopathy, DM (SOD1A)

Identified in Siberian Huskies

Alaskan Malamute Polyneuropathy, AMPN (NDRG1 SNP)

Identified in Alaskan Malamutes

Oculocutaneous Albinism, OCA (SLC45A2, Small Breed Variant)

Identified in Pomeranians

Hereditary Vitamin D-Resistant Rickets (VDR)

Identified in Pomeranians

Additional Genetic Conditions

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Traits

Explore the genetics behind your dog’s appearance and size.

Coat Color

Coat Color

Other Coat Traits

Other Coat Traits

Other Body Features

Other Body Features

Body Size

Body Size

Performance

Performance

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Through Titan’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace his mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that his ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

A2

Haplotype

A29a

Map

A2

Titan’s Haplogroup

A2 is a very ancient maternal line. Most likely it was one of the major female lines that contributed to the very first domesticated dogs in Central Asia about 15,000 years ago. Some of the line stayed in Central Asia to the present day, and frequently appear as Tibetan Mastiffs and Akitas. Those that escaped the mountains of Central Asia sought out other cold spots, and are now found among Alaskan Malamutes and Siberian Huskies. This lineage is also occasionally found in several common Western breeds, such as German Shepherds and Labrador Retrievers. Curiously, all New Guinea Singing Dogs descend from this line. These are an ancient and very interesting breed found in the mountains of Papua New Guinea. Unfortunately, they are now endangered. They are closely related to the Australian dingo, so you could say its cousins are dingos! This line is also common in village dogs in Southeast and East Asia. Unlike many other lineages, A2 did not spread across the whole world, probably because it did not have the opportunity to hitch its wagon to European colonialism - or because these dogs just prefer hanging out in mountains, tundras, islands, and other hard-to-reach places!

A29a

Titan’s Haplotype

Part of the A2 haplogroup, this haplotype occurs most commonly in Siberian Huskies, Alaskan Malamutes, Labrador Retrievers, and village dogs from Alaska.

Dingos commonly possess this haplogroup.

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Through Titan’s Y-chromosome we can trace his father’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that his ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

A1b

Haplotype

Ha.44

Map

A1b

Titan’s Haplogroup

For most of dog history, this haplogroup was probably quite rare. However, a couple hundred years ago it seems to have found its way into a prized male guard dog in Europe who had many offspring, including the ancestors of many European guard breeds such as Doberman Pinchers, St. Bernards, and Great Danes. Despite being rare, many of the most imposing dogs on Earth have it; strangely, so do many Pomeranians! Perhaps this explains why some Poms are so tough, acting like they're ten times their actual size! This lineage is most commonly found in working dogs, in particular guard dogs. With origins in Europe, it spread widely across other regions as Europeans took their dogs across the world.

Ha.44

Titan’s Haplotype

Part of the A1b haplogroup, this haplotype occurs primarily in Poodles and Belgian Sheepdogs.

Great Danes and Pomeranians have this in common!

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