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Sammy

Samoyed

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Genetic Breed Result

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Samoyed

A working breed, the Samoyed can be strong-willed at times, but above all they remain friendly, gentle, and devoted family dogs. The Samoyed was originally bred to hunt, haul sledges, and herd reindeer. Among the breed’s duties: pack hiking, tracking, and warming their owners by sleeping on top of them at night.

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Genetic Stats

Predicted Adult Weight

48 lbs

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Health Summary

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Sammy has one variant that you should let your vet know about.

ALT Activity

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Sammy inherited one copy of the variant we tested

Why is this important to your vet?

Sammy has one copy of a variant associated with reduced ALT activity as measured on veterinary blood chemistry panels. Please inform your veterinarian that Sammy has this genotype, as ALT is often used as an indicator of liver health and Sammy is likely to have a lower than average resting ALT activity. As such, an increase in Sammy’s ALT activity could be evidence of liver damage, even if it is within normal limits by standard ALT reference ranges.

What is ALT Activity?

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a clinical tool that can be used by veterinarians to better monitor liver health. This result is not associated with liver disease. ALT is one of several values veterinarians measure on routine blood work to evaluate the liver. It is a naturally occurring enzyme located in liver cells that helps break down protein. When the liver is damaged or inflamed, ALT is released into the bloodstream.

Breed-Relevant Genetic Conditions

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X-Linked Progressive Retinal Atrophy 1, XL-PRA1 (RPGR)

Identified in Samoyeds

X-Linked Hereditary Nephropathy, XLHN (COL4A5 Exon 35, Samoyed Variant 2)

Identified in Samoyeds

Oculoskeletal Dysplasia 2 (COL9A2, Samoyed Variant)

Identified in Samoyeds

Additional Genetic Conditions

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Explore the genetics behind your dog’s appearance and size.

Coat Color

Coat Color

E Locus (MC1R)
No dark hairs anywhere (ee)
K Locus (CBD103)
Not expressed (KBKB)
Intensity Loci LINKAGE
Any pigmented hair likely white or cream (Dilute Red Pigmentation)
A Locus (ASIP)
Not expressed (aa)
D Locus (MLPH)
Not expressed (DD)
Cocoa (HPS3)
No co alleles, not expressed (NN)
B Locus (TYRP1)
Likely black colored nose/feet (BB)
Saddle Tan (RALY)
Not expressed (NI)
S Locus (MITF)
Likely flash, parti, piebald, or extreme white (spsp)
M Locus (PMEL)
No merle alleles (mm)
R Locus (USH2A) LINKAGE
Likely no impact on coat pattern (rr)
H Locus (Harlequin)
No harlequin alleles (hh)
Other Coat Traits

Other Coat Traits

Furnishings (RSPO2) LINKAGE
Likely unfurnished (no mustache, beard, and/or eyebrows) (II)
Coat Length (FGF5)
Likely short or mid-length coat (GT)
Shedding (MC5R)
Likely heavy/seasonal shedding (CC)
Hairlessness (FOXI3) LINKAGE
Very unlikely to be hairless (NN)
Hairlessness (SGK3)
Very unlikely to be hairless (NN)
Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 2 (SLC45A2) LINKAGE
Likely not albino (NN)
Coat Texture (KRT71)
Likely straight coat (CC)
Other Body Features

Other Body Features

Muzzle Length (BMP3)
Likely medium or long muzzle (CC)
Tail Length (T)
Likely normal-length tail (CC)
Hind Dewclaws (LMBR1)
Unlikely to have hind dew claws (CC)
Blue Eye Color (ALX4) LINKAGE
Less likely to have blue eyes (NN)
Back Muscling & Bulk, Large Breed (ACSL4)
Likely normal muscling (CC)
Body Size

Body Size

Body Size (IGF1)
Intermediate (NI)
Body Size (IGFR1)
Larger (GG)
Body Size (STC2)
Larger (TT)
Body Size (GHR - E191K)
Larger (GG)
Body Size (GHR - P177L)
Larger (CC)
Performance

Performance

Altitude Adaptation (EPAS1)
Normal altitude tolerance (GG)
Appetite (POMC) LINKAGE
Normal food motivation (NN)
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Through Sammy’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace his mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that his ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

B1

Haplotype

B45

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B1

Sammy’s Haplogroup

B1 is the second most common maternal lineage in breeds of European or American origin. It is the female line of the majority of Golden Retrievers, Basset Hounds, and Shih Tzus, and about half of Beagles, Pekingese and Toy Poodles. This lineage is also somewhat common among village dogs that carry distinct ancestry from these breeds. We know this is a result of B1 dogs being common amongst the European dogs that their conquering owners brought around the world, because nowhere on earth is it a very common lineage in village dogs. It even enables us to trace the path of (human) colonization: Because most Bichons are B1 and Bichons are popular in Spanish culture, B1 is now fairly common among village dogs in Latin America.

B45

Sammy’s Haplotype

Part of the large B1 haplogroup, this haplotype occurs most commonly in Yorkshire Terriers, Doberman Pinschers, Cocker Spaniels, and village dogs in Costa Rica.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

The B1 haplogroup can be found in village dogs like the Peruvian Village Dog, pictured above.

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Through Sammy’s Y-chromosome we can trace his father’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that his ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

C

Haplotype

H5a.3

Map

C

Sammy’s Haplogroup

C is a relatively rare paternal lineage. The dog populations which bear C are a disparate bunch. The Akita and Shiba Inu are Japanese breeds, the former of which seems to have roots in the Jomon population of hunter-gatherers which were present in the islands of Japan before the ancestors of the modern Japanese arrived. The New Guinea Singing Dog, Samoyed, and Alaska Malamute are all disparate breeds that also represent the C lineage. One village dog from Peru also bore this lineage. This wide distribution and diversity suggest C is not a recently expanded lineage. It likely represents a canid lineage which diversified sometime around the Last Glacial Maximum, when the dogs of Siberia and Oceania split off and went their separate ways.

H5a.3

Sammy’s Haplotype

Part of the C haplogroup, the H5a.3 haplotype occurs most commonly in Samoyeds, Eurasiers and Finnish Lapphunds.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

The Shiba Inu descends from this relativey rare haplogroup.

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