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Louis

Mixed Breed

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Place of Birth

West Virginia, USA

Current Location

West Allis, Wisconsin, USA

From

New Jersey, USA

This dog has been viewed and been given 5 wags

Registration

Microchip: 982126052187986

Genetic Breed Result

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Papillon

The Papillon, also called the Continental Toy Spaniel, is a breed of dog of the Spaniel type.

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Chihuahua

Chihuahuas have a huge personality that defies their tiny frame, known to be highly active and intelligent canines.

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Dachshund

The Dachshund, meaning “badger dog” in German, is a lively breed with a friendly personality and a great sense of smell. Known for their long and low bodies, they are spirited hunters that excel in both above and below-ground work. They come in three different coat varieties (smooth, wirehaired or longhaired) and can be miniature or standard size.

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Shih Tzu

This ancient breed is the perfect lapdog. Sweet and easygoing, they want nothing more than to be close to their humans.

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Pomeranian

The Pomeranian is a cocky, animated companion with an extroverted personality.

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Biewer Terrier

The Biewer Terrier is one of the smallest Terriers within the Toy Group, only 7-8 inches tall and typically less than 8 pounds. In spite of the small size, the Biewer is known as a robust and athletic dog.

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Pekingese

Pekingese were dogs bred for centuries to be the prized companions of the imperial family of China. Today they are still cherished family companions and show dogs who greet everyone they meet with dignity and grace.

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Genetic Stats

Wolfiness

1.2 % MEDIUM

Predicted Adult Weight

14 lbs

Genetic Age
37 human years

Based on the date of birth provided

Dogs Like Louis

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Discover dogs who share a similar breed mix to Louis. A higher score means the two dogs have more of their breed mix in common. A score of 100% means they share the exact same breed mix!

Click or tap on a pic to learn more about each dog and see an in-depth comparison of their DNA, breeds, and more.

DNA Breed Origins

Breed colors:
Papillon
Chihuahua
Dachshund
Shih Tzu
Pomeranian
Biewer Terrier
Pekingese

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Louis
Family Tree From Embark PARENTS GRANDPARENTS GREAT GRANDPARENTS Chihuahua mix Papillon mix Chihuahua Shih Tzu / Biewer Terrier mix Papillon Pomeranian / Dachshund mix Chihuahua Chihuahua Shih Tzu mix Biewer Terrier mix Papillon Papillon Pomeranian mix Dachshund

Our algorithms predict this is the most likely family tree to explain Louis’s breed mix, but this family tree may not be the only possible one.

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Health Summary

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Louis is at increased risk for one genetic health condition.

And inherited one variant that you should learn more about.

Intervertebral Disc Disease (Type I)

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Louis inherited one copy of the variant we tested

How to interpret this result

Louis has one copy of an FGF4 retrogene on chromosome 12. In some breeds such as Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, and Dachshunds (among others) this variant is found in nearly all dogs. While those breeds are known to have an elevated risk of IVDD, many dogs in those breeds never develop IVDD. For mixed breed dogs and purebreds of other breeds where this variant is not as common, risk for Type I IVDD is greater for individuals with this variant than for similar dogs.

What is Intervertebral Disc Disease (Type I)?

Type I Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD) is a back/spine issue that refers to a health condition affecting the discs that act as cushions between vertebrae. With Type I IVDD, affected dogs can have a disc event where it ruptures or herniates towards the spinal cord. This pressure on the spinal cord causes neurologic signs which can range from a wobbly gait to impairment of movement. Chondrodystrophy (CDDY) refers to the relative proportion between a dog’s legs and body, wherein the legs are shorter and the body longer. There are multiple different variants that can cause a markedly chondrodystrophic appearance as observed in Dachshunds and Corgis. However, this particular variant is the only one known to also increase the risk for IVDD.

ALT Activity

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Louis inherited both copies of the variant we tested

Why is this important to your vet?

Louis has two copies of a variant in the GPT gene and is likely to have a lower than average baseline ALT activity. ALT is a commonly used measure of liver health on routine veterinary blood chemistry panels. As such, your veterinarian may want to watch for changes in Louis's ALT activity above their current, healthy, ALT activity. As an increase above Louis’s baseline ALT activity could be evidence of liver damage, even if it is within normal limits by standard ALT reference ranges.

What is ALT Activity?

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a clinical tool that can be used by veterinarians to better monitor liver health. This result is not associated with liver disease. ALT is one of several values veterinarians measure on routine blood work to evaluate the liver. It is a naturally occurring enzyme located in liver cells that helps break down protein. When the liver is damaged or inflamed, ALT is released into the bloodstream.

Breed-Relevant Genetic Conditions

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Factor VII Deficiency

Identified in Papillons

Von Willebrand Disease Type I, Type I vWD

Identified in Papillons

Prekallikrein Deficiency

Identified in Shih Tzus

Progressive Retinal Atrophy, rcd3

Identified in Pomeranians

Progressive Retinal Atrophy, prcd

Identified in Biewer Terriers and Chihuahuas

Progressive Retinal Atrophy, PRA1

Identified in Papillons

Progressive Retinal Atrophy, crd4/cord1

Identified in Chihuahuas, Dachshunds, and more

Primary Lens Luxation

Identified in Biewer Terriers

Urate Kidney & Bladder Stones

Identified in Pomeranians

Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIA, Sanfilippo Syndrome Type A, MPS IIIA

Identified in Dachshunds

Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis 1, NCL 1

Identified in Dachshunds

Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis 2, NCL 2

Identified in Dachshunds

Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis 7, NCL 7

Identified in Chihuahuas

Spinocerebellar Ataxia with Myokymia and/or Seizures

Identified in Chihuahuas

Narcolepsy

Identified in Dachshunds

Oculocutaneous Albinism, OCA

Identified in Pekingese and Pomeranians

Hereditary Vitamin D-Resistant Rickets

Identified in Pomeranians

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Identified in Dachshunds

Additional Genetic Conditions

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Explore the genetics behind your dog’s appearance and size.

Base Coat Color

Base Coat Color

Coat Color Modifiers

Coat Color Modifiers

Other Coat Traits

Other Coat Traits

Other Body Features

Other Body Features

Body Size

Body Size

Performance

Performance

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Through Louis’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace his mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that his ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

A4

Haplotype

A208

Map

A4

Louis’s Haplogroup

The A4 maternal lineage is fairly rare. It is found in Cocker Spaniels, but A4 is also represented well among East Asian breeds including the Chinese Crested Dog, Shar-Pei and Shih Tzu. Moving away from Asia, it is also found among Chihuahuas (a very old breed!) and village dogs in Peru. This may be a lineage that moved into Western breeds because of their owners' tendencies to mix them up with Eastern breeds in the early modern period.

A208

Louis’s Haplotype

Part of the small A4 haplogroup, this haplotype occurs in Chinese Crested dogs, Toy Fox Terriers, Miniature Pinschers, and village dogs in Mexico.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

The popular Chihuahua breed descends from the A4 maternal line.

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Through Louis’s Y-chromosome we can trace his father’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that his ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

A1a

Haplotype

H1a.4

Map

A1a

Louis’s Haplogroup

Some of the wolves that became the original dogs in Central Asia around 15,000 years ago came from this long and distinguished line of male dogs. After domestication, they followed their humans from Asia to Europe and then didn't stop there. They took root in Europe, eventually becoming the dogs that founded the Vizsla breed 1,000 years ago. The Vizsla is a Central European hunting dog, and all male Vizslas descend from this line. During the Age of Exploration, like their owners, these pooches went by the philosophy, "Have sail, will travel!" From the windy plains of Patagonia to the snug and homey towns of the American Midwest, the beaches of a Pacific paradise, and the broad expanse of the Australian outback, these dogs followed their masters to the outposts of empires. Whether through good fortune or superior genetics, dogs from the A1a lineage traveled the globe and took root across the world. Now you find village dogs from this line frolicking on Polynesian beaches, hanging out in villages across the Americas, and scavenging throughout Old World settlements. You can also find this "prince of patrilineages" in breeds as different as German Shepherds, Golden Retrievers, Pugs, Border Collies, Scottish Terriers, and Irish Wolfhounds. No male wolf line has been as successful as the A1a line!

H1a.4

Louis’s Haplotype

Part of the large A1a haplogroup, this haplotype occurs in village dogs in Colombia. It is common in small dogs like Dachshund, Miniature Dachshund, and Chihuahuas, but can also be found in larger breeds like Golden Retrievers.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

Dogs with A1a lineage travelled during European Colonial times.

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