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Please note that genetic age is different from calendar age. We cannot (yet) estimate calendar age—how long since your dog was born—from DNA. To learn how vets estimate calendar age you can read How old is your dog? How veterinarians estimate dog age.
The genetic age that we report is an estimation of where your dog is in his or her healthspan. Dogs age at very different rates due to a number of genetic and environmental factors. Body size is a strong genetic influence: for example, a seven year old Great Dane is at the start of his golden years, but a seven year old Pomeranian is just learning what "slow down" means. Just within this example, you can see that the old "one doggie year = seven human years" adage isn’t going to work. And yet, knowing your dog’s age is important: it informs what your dog needs as far as food, frequency of veterinary checkups, and exercise. So how do you best determine how old your dog is?
Embark's genetic age feature calculates how old your dog would be if he or she were aging at an average human rate (using humans in the USA as the baseline). So going back to our Dane/Pom example, we'd estimate a seven year old Great Dane at about 80 years old (senior citizen), but a seven year old Pom would be about 42 (adult). Makes way more sense, right?
|Calendar age||Genetic age|
|1 year||17 human years|
|2 years||25 human years|
|3 years||31 human years|
|4 years||38 human years|
|5 years||45 human years|
|6 years||52 human years|
|7 years||58 human years|
|8 years||65 human years|
|9 years||72 human years|
|10 years||79 human years|
|11 years||85 human years|
|12 years||92 human years|
All we need from you is a calendar age. It's okay if this is an estimation: it is just a starting point. We then factor in your dog's breed composition, information at certain genes that affect size, and their inbreeding coefficient to calculate genetic age. Like in humans, in dogs females tend to live longer than males (so an “80 year old” female dog = 80 year old woman). Exercise and diet also play a role in how long your dog will live. Nevertheless, genetic age is the primary risk factor for numerous diseases in dogs, including cancer, kidney disease, osteoarthritis, cataracts, cardiac disease and cognitive decline. It can help you and your vet know what you should feed your dog, what screenings to get, and other aspects of your dog’s care.
How wolfy is my dog?
Most dogs have wolfiness scores of 1% or less. We find populations and breeds with higher scores of 2-4% occasionally, and unique dogs with scores of 5% or above more rarely.
What it means for my dog
Your dog’s Wolfiness Score is not a measure of recent dog-wolf hybridization and does not necessarily indicate that your dog has some recent wolf ancestors. (If your dog has recent wolf ancestors, you will see that in the breed mix report.) Instead, the Wolfiness Score is based on the number of ancient genetic variants your dog has in our unique Wolfiness marker panel. Wolfiness scores up to 10% are almost always due to ancient wolf genes that survived many generations, rather than any recent wolf ancestors. These ancient genes may be a few thousand years old, or may even date back to the original domestication event 15,000 years ago. They are bits of a wild past that survive in your dog!
Your dog’s Wolfiness Score is based on hundreds of markers across the genome where dogs (or almost all of them) are the same, but wolves tend to be different. These markers are thought to be related to "domestication gene sweeps" where early dogs were selected for some trait. Scientists have known about “domestication gene sweeps” for years, but do not yet know why each sweep occurred. By finding rare dogs carrying an ancient variant at a certain marker, we can make associations with behavior, size, metabolism, and development that likely caused these unique signatures of “doggyness” in the genome.
Predicted Adult Weight
How does weight matter?
For people with puppies, you probably want to know how big of a crate to buy or just how big to expect your dog to become. But genetic weight is also useful for people with fully grown dogs. Just like with people, overweight and obese dogs suffer reduced length and quality of life. They can develop chronic health conditions and suffer from limited mobility and other issues. While over half of American dogs are overweight or obese, fewer than 15% of their owners realize it. By comparing your dog’s weight to their genetic predicted weight you have one more piece of information about their ideal weight. With this and other pieces of information like weight history and body condition, you and your veterinarian may want to discuss your dog’s diet, exercise, and weight control plan to give your pup the longest, healthiest life possible.
How do we predict weight?
Our test is the only dog DNA test that provides true genetic size not based just on breed ancestry but based on over a dozen genes known to influence a dog’s weight. It uses the most advanced science to determine your dog’s expected weight based on their sex, the combination of these genes, and breed-specific modifiers.
How accurate is the predicted weight?
Unlike in people, healthy weight in dogs is controlled largely by only a few genes. Our algorithm explains over 85% of the variance in healthy adult weight. However, due to a few as-yet-undiscovered genes and genetic interactions that affect size, this algorithm sometimes misses. Occasionally it misses by a fairly large amount especially when a dog has a breed with an unknown size-influencing gene. If we have missed your dog’s weight, your dog may be a scientific discovery waiting to happen! Please be sure to go to the Research tab and complete the Getting to know your dog survey, where you can answer questions about your dog’s current weight and body shape. This information will inform our ongoing research into the genetics of size and weight in dogs.
Revealing your dog’s ancient heritage
Haplotypes are particular DNA sequences that are inherited entirely from a dog’s mom (maternal) or dad (paternal).
Because they are inherited whole, your dog and his or her mom share the exact same maternal haplotype. If you have a male dog, your dog and his dad share the exact same paternal haplotype (female dogs don’t inherit paternal haplotypes).
Because most breeds were started with only a few individual dogs, many breeds are dominated by only one or a few haplotypes.
Revealing your dog’s ancient heritage
Haplogroups are groups of similar DNA sequences (called haplotypes) that are inherited entirely from the mother (maternal) or father (paternal) and don’t get shuffled up like other parts of your dog’s genome.
These groups all originally descend from one male or female wolf, usually one that lived tens of thousands of years ago. Because they are inherited whole and not shuffled like other DNA, they can be used to trace the ancestral routes that dogs took around the globe en route to your home.
Only male dogs have paternal haplogroups because they are determined by the Y chromosome, which only male dogs have. Both males and females have maternal haplogroups, which come from a part of DNA called the mitochondrial DNA.
Breed analysisBreed analysis is based on comparing your dog’s DNA with the DNA of dogs from over 350 breeds, types and varieties.
How are Kona's ancestors represented in her DNA?
All dogs are related and share some DNA. Siblings share lots of their DNA (half of it in fact), cousins share a bit less (an eighth), and so on. Because dog breeds are made up of a closed group of dogs, all dogs in that breed share a lot of their DNA, typically about as much as second cousins, though it varies by breed. Different breeds that are closely related share somewhat less DNA, and dogs from very different breeds share even less DNA (but still much more DNA than either dog shares with a cat).
DNA is inherited in pieces, called chromosomes, that are passed along from parent to offspring. Each generation, these chromosomes are broken up and shuffled a bit in a process known as recombination. So, the length of the segments your dog shares with her ancestors decreases with each generation above her: she shares longer segments with her mom than her grandma, longer segments with her grandma than her great-grandma, and so on.
How does Embark know which breeds are in Kona?
We can use the length of segments Kona shares with our reference dogs to see how many generations it has been since they last shared an ancestor. Long segments of DNA that are identical to known purebred dogs tell Embark's scientists that Kona has, without a doubt, a relative from that breed. By testing over 200,000 genetic markers, we build up her genes one DNA segment at a time, to learn the ancestry with great certainty. Other dog DNA tests look at many fewer genetic markers and have to take a guess at breed ancestry based on that.
What does this mean for Kona's looks and behavior?
Look closely and you'll probably find Kona has some physical and/or behavioral resemblance with her ancestor's breeds. The exact similarity depends on which parts of DNA Kona shares with each breed. Some traits associated with each breed are listed in the Breed & Ancestry section of our website. Embark will tell you even more about Kona's traits soon!
P.S. In a small proportion of cases, we find dogs that don’t share segments with other dogs we have tested, indicating the presence of a rare breed that is not part of our reference panel or possibly a true "village dog" without any purebred relatives at all. In these rare cases we contact the owner to find out more and let them know about their unique dog before they get their results. With this in-depth detective work, we are pushing science forward by identifying genetically unique groups of dogs.
Still have questions?
Yes! Some dogs descend from other dogs that were themselves mixed breed. These other dogs can give small contributions to the ancestry of your dog, so small that they are no longer recognizable as any one particular breed. We call this portion unresolved or “Supermutt” since it confers super powers! Just kidding. But we do think supermutts really are super!
What are “Dogs Like Kona?”
“Dogs Like Kona” are based on the percentage of breeds the two dogs have in common. For example, two dogs that are both 27% Golden Retriever and 73% Poodle will have a score of 100%. Sometimes dogs with high scores look alike, and sometimes they don’t — either way the comparison is based on each dog’s unique DNA, which is much more accurate than judging by looks.
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Genetic Breed Result
The American Bully may look intimidating with its muscular build, but these dogs are bred to be the ideal family or companion dog. This breed is notable for coming in several different size and type varieties, so there's a lot of diversity in their appearance. They're a newer breed, originating in the 80s and 90s in the United States.
Bernese Mountain Dog
Bernese Mountain Dogs are strikingly beautiful dogs, originally bred to assist as farm dogs in the Swiss Alps and popular today as loyal companions and family dogs.
The Labrador Retriever was bred for hunting and excelled in retrieving game after it was shot down. Known for its gentle disposition and loyalty, the Labrador Retriever has become a favorite of families and breeders alike.
Developed as an ideal hunting retriever, the Golden Retriever's eagerness to please and friendliness has made them an extremely popular family pet.
American Staffordshire Terrier
American Staffordshire Terriers are powerful but playful dogs that are both loyal and affectionate with their owners.
American Pit Bull Terrier
The American Pit Bull Terrier originated in the British Isles and descends from the Mastiff-type dogs introduced to England in antiquity. The breed was brought over to the United States by English immigrants in the 1800s, and quickly became one of the most popular and widespread breeds there.
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Dogs Like Kona
Discover dogs who share a similar breed mix to Kona. A higher score means the two dogs have more of their breed mix in common. A score of 100% means they share the exact same breed mix!
Click or tap on a pic to learn more about each dog and see an in-depth comparison of their DNA, breeds, and more.
Building blocks of life
See which breed every part of Kona’s DNA comes from!
Genes from your dog’s breeds serve as the building blocks to creating your unique pooch
Dogs have 39 pairs of chromosomes, almost double humans who have 23. 38 of those pairs are the same for all dogs while the 39th is the sex chromosomes - two X’s for females and one X and one Y for males. One copy of each chromosome came from your dog’s mother and one from your dog’s father. Each copy contains between 24 million and 123 million bases, or letters of DNA code, for 2.5 billion total letters inherited from each parent. This chromosome illustration shows a representation of each of your dog’s 38 pairs of chromosomes (excluding the X and Y sex chromosomes).
Because the members of a breed have similar stretches of DNA, we can use our 200,000+ genetic markers to determine what part of each chromosome in your dog came from what breed. For each pair of chromosomes, your dog’s mom and dad each gave your dog one copy of that chromosome, for a grand total of 78 chromosomes. So if your dog’s mom was a poodle and dad was a schnauzer then the painting would show one complete poodle and one complete schnauzer chromosome for each pair. The more complex your dog’s ancestry, the more complex the painting, as in each generation recombination (the splitting apart and "shuffling around" of genes between paired chromosomes) mixes up bits of chromosome from grandparents, great-grandparents, and beyond.
Each trait your dog exhibits, such as fur shedding, is based on the letter at one or more locations in your dog’s genome. For example the location determining if your dog sheds their fur is located on chromosome 1. Some other traits, like size, are complexly inherited from many locations, including ones on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 7, 10, 15, and more. Your dog looks the way it does not because of averaging or blending the breeds that form it, but because specific traits were inherited from specific breeds. That’s one reason your mix may look, act, and have certain health issues much more like one breed than another!
Would you like more information? You can contact us at:
Breed Reveal Video
Our algorithms predict this is the most likely family tree to explain Kona’s breed mix, but this family tree may not be the only possible one.Learn more about Embark
Explore the genetics behind your dog’s appearance and size.
Base Coat Color
Genetic Result: Eme
Gene: Melanocortin Receptor 1 (MC1R)
This gene helps determine whether a dog can produce dark (black or brown) hairs or lighter yellow or red hairs. Any result except for ee means that the dog can produce dark hairs. An ee result means that the dog does not produce dark hairs at all, and will have lighter yellow or red hairs over their entire body.
If a dog has a ee result then the fur’s actual shade can range from a deep copper to yellow/gold to cream - the exact color cannot be predicted solely from this result, and will depend on other genetic factors.
More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/masks.html
Genetic Result: NN
Dogs with the coco genotype will produce dark brown pigment instead of black in both their hair and skin. Dogs with the Nco genotype will produce black pigment, but can pass the co variant on to their puppies. Dogs that have the coco genotype as well as the bb genotype at the B locus are generally a lighter brown than dogs that have the Bbb or BB genotypes at the B locus.
The co variant and the dark brown "cocoa" coat color have only been documented in French Bulldogs. Dogs with the cocoa coat color are sometimes born with light brown coats that darken as they reach maturity.
- Kiener et al 2020
More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/liver.html#cocoa
Genetic Result: Intermediate Red Pigmentation
Intensity refers to the concentration of red pigment in the coat. Dogs with more densely concentrated (intense) pigment will be a deeper red, while dogs with less concentrated (dilute) pigment will be tan, yellow, cream, or white. Five locations in the dog genome explain approximately 70% of red pigmentation intensity variation across all dogs. Because the locations we test may not directly cause differences in red pigmentation intensity, we consider this to be a linkage test.
One of the genes that influences pigment intensity in dogs, TYR, is also responsible for intensity variation in domestic mice, cats, cattle, rabbits, and llamas. In dogs and humans, more genes are involved.
Genetic Result: BB
Gene: Tyrosinase Related Protein 1 (TYRP1)
This gene helps determine whether a dog produces brown or black pigments. Dogs with a bb result produce brown pigment instead of black in both their hair and skin, while dogs with a Bb or BB result produce black pigment. Dogs that have ee at the E (Extension) Locus and bb at this B (Brown) Locus are likely to have red or cream coats and brown noses, eye rims, and footpads, which is sometimes referred to as "Dudley Nose" in Labrador Retrievers.
“Liver” or “chocolate” is the preferred color term for brown in most breeds; in the Doberman Pinscher it is referred to as “red”.
More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/liver.html
Genetic Result: Dd
Gene: Melanophilin (MLPH)
This gene helps determine whether a dog has lighter “diluted” pigment. A dog with a Dd or DD result will not be dilute. A dog with a dd result will have all their black or brown pigment lightened (“diluted”) to gray or light brown, and may lighten red pigment to cream. This affects their fur, skin, and sometimes eye color. The D locus result that we report is determined by two different genetic variants that can work together to cause diluted pigmentation. These are the common d allele, also known as “d1”, and a less common allele known as “d2”. Dogs with one d1 allele and one d2 allele are typically dilute. To view your dog’s d1 and d2 test results, click the “SEE DETAILS” link in the upper right hand corner of the “Base Coat Color” section of the Traits page, and then click the “VIEW SUBLOCUS RESULTS” link at the bottom of the page.
There are many breed-specific names for these dilute colors, such as “blue”, “charcoal”, “fawn”, “silver”, and “Isabella”. Dilute dogs, especially in certain breeds, have a higher incidence of Color Dilution Alopecia which causes hair loss in some patches.
More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/dilutes.html
Coat Color Modifiers
Genetic Result: KBKB
Gene: Canine Beta-Defensin 103 (CBD103)
This gene helps determine whether the dog has a black coat. Dogs with a kyky result will show a coat color pattern based on the result they have at the A (Agouti) Locus. A KBKB or KBky result means the dog is dominant black, which overrides the fur pattern that would otherwise be determined by the A (Agouti) Locus. These dogs will usually have solid black or brown coats, or if they have ee at the E (Extension) Locus then red/cream coats, regardless of their result at the A (Agouti) Locus. Dogs who test as KBky may be brindle rather than black or brown.
Even if a dog is “dominant black” several other genes could still impact the dog’s fur and cause other patterns, such as white spotting.
More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/black.htm
Genetic Result: aya
Gene: Agouti Signalling Protein (ASIP)
This gene is responsible for causing different coat patterns. It only affects the fur of dogs that do not have ee at the E (Extension) Locus and do have kyky at the K (Dominant Black) Locus. It controls switching between black and red pigment in hair cells, which means that it can cause a dog to have hairs that have sections of black and sections of red/cream, or hairs with different colors on different parts of the dog’s body. Sable or Fawn dogs have a mostly or entirely red coat with some interspersed black hairs. Agouti or Wolf Sable dogs have red hairs with black tips, mostly on their head and back. Black and tan dogs are mostly black or brown with lighter patches on their cheeks, eyebrows, chest, and legs. Recessive black dogs have solid-colored black or brown coats.
The ASIP gene causes interesting coat patterns in many other species of animals as well as dogs.
More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/tan.html
Genetic Result: Eme
Gene: Melanocortin Receptor 1 (MC1R)
In addition to determining if a dog can develop dark fur at all, this gene can give a dog a black “mask” or “widow’s peak,” unless the dog has overriding coat color genetic factors. Dogs with one or two copies of Em in their result will have a mask, which is dark facial fur as seen in the German Shepherd and Pug. Dogs with no Em in their result but one or two copies of Eg will instead have a "widow's peak", which is dark forehead fur.
The widow’s peak is seen in the Afghan Hound and Borzoi, where it is called either “grizzle” or “domino”.
More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/masks.html
Genetic Result: NN
The "Saddle Tan" pattern causes the black hairs to recede into a "saddle" shape on the back, leaving a tan face, legs, and belly, as a dog ages. The Saddle Tan pattern is characteristic of breeds like the Corgi, Beagle, and German Shepherd. Dogs that have the II genotype at this locus are more likely to be mostly black with tan points on the eyebrows, muzzle, and legs as commonly seen in the Doberman Pinscher and the Rottweiler. This gene modifies the A Locus at allele, so dogs that do not express at are not influenced by this gene.
The Saddle Tan pattern is characteristic of breeds like the Corgi, Beagle, and German Shepherd.
Genetic Result: SS
This gene is responsible for most of the white spotting observed in dogs. Dogs with a result of spsp will have a nearly white coat or large patches of white in their coat. Dogs with a result of Ssp will have more limited white spotting that is breed-dependent. A result of SS means that a dog likely has no white or minimal white in their coat. The S Locus does not explain all white spotting patterns in dogs and other causes are currently being researched. Some dogs may have small amounts of white on the paws, chest, face, or tail regardless of their result at this gene.
Any dog can have white spotting regardless of coat color. The colored sections of the coat will reflect the dog’s other genetic coat color results.
More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/white.htm
Genetic Result: rr
This gene, along with the S Locus, regulates whether a dog will have roaning. Dogs with at least one copy of R will likely have roaning on otherwise uniformly unpigmented white areas created by the S Locus. Roan may not be visible if white spotting is limited to small areas, such as the paws, chest, face, or tail. The extent of roaning varies from uniform roaning to non-uniform roaning, and patchy, non-uniform roaning may look similar to ticking. Roan does not appear in white areas created by other genes, such as a combination of the E Locus and I Locus (for example, Samoyeds). The roan pattern can appear with or without ticking.
Roan, tick, and Dalmatians' spots become visible a few weeks after birth. The R Locus is probably involved in the development of Dalmatians' spots.
More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/ticking.html
Genetic Result: mm
This gene is responsible for mottled or patchy coat color in some dogs. Dogs with an M*m result are likely to have merle coat patterning or be "phantom" merle (where the merle allele is not obvious in their coat). Dogs with an M*M* result are likely to have merle or double merle coat patterning. Dogs with an mm result are unlikely to have a merle coat pattern.
Merle coat patterning is common to several dog breeds including the Australian Shepherd, Catahoula Leopard Dog, and Shetland Sheepdog.
More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/merle.html
Genetic Result: hh
This gene, along with the M Locus, determines whether a dog will have harlequin patterning. This pattern is recognized in Great Danes and causes dogs to have a white coat with patches of darker pigment. A dog with an Hh result will be harlequin if they are also M*m or M*M* at the M Locus and are not ee at the E locus. Dogs with a result of hh will not be harlequin.
While many harlequin dogs are white with black patches, some dogs have grey, sable, or brindle patches of color, depending on their genotypes at other coat color genes.
More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/harlequin.html
Other Coat Traits
Genetic Result: II
This gene is responsible for “furnishings”, which is another name for the mustache, beard, and eyebrows that are characteristic of breeds like the Schnauzer, Scottish Terrier, and Wire Haired Dachshund. A dog with an FF or FI result is likely to have furnishings. A dog with an II result will not have furnishings. We measure this result using a linkage test.
In breeds that are expected to have furnishings, dogs without furnishings are the exception - this is sometimes called an “improper coat”.
Genetic Result: GT
This gene is known to affect hair/fur length in many different species, including cats, dogs, mice, and humans. In dogs, a TT result means the dog is likely to have a long, silky coat as seen in the Yorkshire Terrier and the Long Haired Whippet. A GG or GT result is likely to mean a shorter coat, like in the Boxer or the American Staffordshire Terrier.
In certain breeds, such as Corgi, the long coat is described as “fluff.”
Genetic Result: CT
This gene affects how much a dog sheds. Dogs with furnishings or wire-haired coats tend to be low shedders regardless of their result for this gene. In other dogs, a CC or CT result indicates heavy or seasonal shedding, like many Labradors and German Shepherd Dogs. Dogs with a TT result tend to be lighter shedders, like Boxers, Shih Tzus and Chihuahuas.
Genetic Result: CC
For dogs with long fur, dogs with a TT or CT result will likely have a wavy or curly coat like the coat of Poodles and Bichon Frises. Dogs with a CC result will likely have a straight coat—unless the dog has a "Likely Furnished" result for the Furnishings trait, since this can also make the coat more curly.
Dogs with short coats may have straight coats, whatever result they have for this gene.
Genetic Result: NN
This gene can cause hairlessness over most of the body as well as changes in tooth shape and number. This particular gene occurs in Peruvian Inca Orchid, Xoloitzcuintli (Mexican Hairless), and Chinese Crested; other hairless breeds are due to different genes. Dogs with the NDup result are likely to be hairless while dogs with the NN result are likely to have a normal coat. We measure this result using a linkage test.
The DupDup result has never been observed, suggesting that dogs with that genotype cannot survive to birth.
Genetic Result: NN
This gene is responsible for Hairlessness in the American Hairless Terrier. Dogs with the ND result are likely to be hairless. Dogs with the NN result are likely to have a normal coat.
Genetic Result: NN
This gene causes oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), also known as Doberman Z Factor Albinism. Dogs with a DD result will have OCA. Effects include severely reduced or absent pigment in the eyes, skin, and hair, and sometimes vision problems due to lack of eye pigment (which helps direct and absorb ambient light) and are prone to sunburn. Dogs with a ND result will not be affected, but can pass the mutation on to their offspring. We measure this result using a linkage test.
This particular mutation can be traced back to a single white Doberman Pinscher born in 1976, and it has only been observed in dogs descended from this individual.
Other Body Features
Genetic Result: AC
This gene affects muzzle length. A dog with a AC or CC result is likely to have a medium-length muzzle like a Staffordshire Terrier or Labrador, or a long muzzle like a Whippet or Collie. A dog with a AA result is likely to have a short muzzle, like an English Bulldog, Pug, or Pekingese.
At least five different genes affect snout length in dogs, with BMP3 being the only one with a known causal mutation. For example, the muzzle length of some breeds, including the long-snouted Scottish Terrier or the short-snouted Japanese Chin, appear to be caused by other genes. This means your dog may have a long or short snout due to other genetic factors. Embark is working to figure out what these might be.
Genetic Result: CC
This is one of the genes that can cause a short bobtail. Most dogs have a CC result and a long tail. Dogs with a CG result are likely to have a bobtail, which is an unusually short or absent tail. This can be seen in many “natural bobtail” breeds including the Pembroke Welsh Corgi, the Australian Shepherd, and the Brittany Spaniel. Dogs with GG genotypes have not been observed, suggesting that dogs with such a result do not survive to birth.
While certain lineages of Boston Terrier, English Bulldog, Rottweiler, Miniature Schnauzer, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, and Parson Russell Terrier, and Dobermans are born with a natural bobtail, it is not always caused by this gene. This suggests that other unknown genetic effects can also lead to a natural bobtail.
Genetic Result: CT
This is one of the genes that can cause hind dew claws, which are extra, nonfunctional digits located midway between a dog's paw and hock. Dogs with a CT or TT result have about a 50% chance of having hind dewclaws. Hind dew claws can also be caused by other, still unknown, genes. Embark is working to figure those out.
Hind dew claws are commonly found in certain breeds such as the Saint Bernard.
Genetic Result: CC
This gene can cause heavy muscling along the back and trunk in characteristically "bulky" large-breed dogs including the Saint Bernard, Bernese Mountain Dog, Greater Swiss Mountain Dog, and Rottweiler. A dog with the TT result is likely to have heavy muscling. Leaner-shaped large breed dogs like the Great Dane, Irish Wolfhound, and Scottish Deerhound generally have a CC result. The TC result also indicates likely normal muscling.
This gene does not seem to affect muscling in small or even mid-sized dog breeds with lots of back muscling, including the American Staffordshire Terrier, Boston Terrier, and the English Bulldog.
Genetic Result: NN
This gene is associated with blue eyes in Arctic breeds like Siberian Husky as well as tri-colored (non-merle) Australian Shepherds. Dogs with a DupDup or NDup result are more likely to have blue eyes, although some dogs may have only one blue eye or may not have blue eyes at all; nevertheless, they can still pass blue eyes to their offspring. Dogs with a NN result may have blue eyes due to other factors, such as merle or white spotting. We measure this result using a linkage test.
Embark researchers discovered this gene by studying data from dogs like yours. Who knows what we will be able to discover next? Answer the questions on our research surveys to contribute to future discoveries!
Genetic Result: NI
This is one of several genes that influence the size of a dog. A result of II for this gene is associated with smaller body size. A result of NN is associated with larger body size.
Genetic Result: GG
This is one of several genes that influence the size of a dog. A result of AA for this gene is associated with smaller body size. A result of GG is associated with larger body size.
Genetic Result: TT
This is one of several genes that influence the size of a dog. A result of AA for this gene is associated with smaller body size. A result of TT is associated with larger body size.
Genetic Result: GG
Gene: GHR - E191K
Genetic Result: CC
Gene: GHR - P177L
This is one of several genes that influence the size of a dog. A result of TT for this gene is associated with smaller body size. A result of CC is associated with larger body size.
Genetic Result: GG
This gene causes dogs to be especially tolerant of low oxygen environments, such as those found at high elevations. Dogs with a AA or GA result will be less susceptible to "altitude sickness."
This gene was originally identified in breeds from high altitude areas such as the Tibetan Mastiff.
Through Kona’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace her mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that her ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.
This female lineage likely stems from some of the original Central Asian wolves that were domesticated into modern dogs starting about 15,000 years ago. It seemed to be a fairly rare dog line for most of dog history until the past 300 years, when the lineage seemed to “explode” out and spread quickly. What really separates this group from the pack is its presence in Alaskan village dogs and Samoyeds. It is possible that this was an indigenous lineage brought to the Americas from Siberia when people were first starting to make that trip themselves! We see this lineage pop up in overwhelming numbers of Irish Wolfhounds, and it also occurs frequently in popular large breeds like Bernese Mountain Dogs, Saint Bernards and Great Danes. Shetland Sheepdogs are also common members of this maternal line, and we see it a lot in Boxers, too. Though it may be all mixed up with European dogs thanks to recent breeding events, its origins in the Americas makes it a very exciting lineage for sure!
Part of the large A1e haplogroup, this haplotype occurs in village dogs in South America, South Asia, and into the South Pacific. Among breeds, we see it in highest frequency among Vizslas, Boxers, and Yorkshire Terriers.
Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:
Irish Wolfhounds are a consistent carrier of A1e.Learn more about Embark
The Paternal Haplotype reveals a dog’s deep ancestral lineage, stretching back thousands of years to the original domestication of dogs.
Are you looking for information on the breeds that Kona inherited from her mom and dad? Check out her breed breakdown and family tree.
Paternal Haplotype is determined by looking at a dog’s Y-chromosome—but not all dogs have Y-chromosomes!
Why can’t we show Paternal Haplotype results for female dogs?
All dogs have two sex chromosomes. Female dogs have two X-chromosomes (XX) and male dogs have one X-chromosome and one Y-chromosome (XY). When having offspring, female (XX) dogs always pass an X-chromosome to their puppy. Male (XY) dogs can pass either an X or a Y-chromosome—if the puppy receives an X-chromosome from its father then it will be a female (XX) puppy and if it receives a Y-chromosome then it will be a male (XY) puppy. As you can see, Y-chromosomes are passed down from a male dog only to its male offspring.
Since Kona is a female (XX) dog, she has no Y-chromosome for us to analyze and determine a paternal haplotype.