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Please note that genetic age is different from calendar age. We cannot (yet) estimate calendar age—how long since your dog was born—from DNA. To learn how vets estimate calendar age you can read How old is your dog? How veterinarians estimate dog age.
The genetic age that we report is an estimation of where your dog is in his or her healthspan. Dogs age at very different rates due to a number of genetic and environmental factors. Body size is a strong genetic influence: for example, a seven year old Great Dane is at the start of his golden years, but a seven year old Pomeranian is just learning what "slow down" means. Just within this example, you can see that the old "one doggie year = seven human years" adage isn’t going to work. And yet, knowing your dog’s age is important: it informs what your dog needs as far as food, frequency of veterinary checkups, and exercise. So how do you best determine how old your dog is?
Embark's genetic age feature calculates how old your dog would be if he or she were aging at an average human rate (using humans in the USA as the baseline). So going back to our Dane/Pom example, we'd estimate a seven year old Great Dane at about 80 years old (senior citizen), but a seven year old Pom would be about 42 (adult). Makes way more sense, right?
|Calendar age||Genetic age|
|1 year||18 human years|
|2 years||25 human years|
|3 years||30 human years|
|4 years||36 human years|
|5 years||41 human years|
|6 years||47 human years|
|7 years||52 human years|
|8 years||57 human years|
|9 years||63 human years|
|10 years||68 human years|
All we need from you is a calendar age. It's okay if this is an estimation: it is just a starting point. We then factor in your dog's breed composition, information at certain genes that affect size, and their inbreeding coefficient to calculate genetic age. Like in humans, in dogs females tend to live longer than males (so an “80 year old” female dog = 80 year old woman). Exercise and diet also play a role in how long your dog will live. Nevertheless, genetic age is the primary risk factor for numerous diseases in dogs, including cancer, kidney disease, osteoarthritis, cataracts, cardiac disease and cognitive decline. It can help you and your vet know what you should feed your dog, what screenings to get, and other aspects of your dog’s care.
How wolfy is my dog?
Most dogs have wolfiness scores of 1% or less. We find populations and breeds with higher scores of 2-4% occasionally, and unique dogs with scores of 5% or above more rarely.
What it means for my dog
Your dog’s Wolfiness Score is not a measure of recent dog-wolf hybridization and does not necessarily indicate that your dog has some recent wolf ancestors. (If your dog has recent wolf ancestors, you will see that in the breed mix report.) Instead, the Wolfiness Score is based on the number of ancient genetic variants your dog has in our unique Wolfiness marker panel. Wolfiness scores up to 10% are almost always due to ancient wolf genes that survived many generations, rather than any recent wolf ancestors. These ancient genes may be a few thousand years old, or may even date back to the original domestication event 15,000 years ago. They are bits of a wild past that survive in your dog!
Your dog’s Wolfiness Score is based on hundreds of markers across the genome where dogs (or almost all of them) are the same, but wolves tend to be different. These markers are thought to be related to "domestication gene sweeps" where early dogs were selected for some trait. Scientists have known about “domestication gene sweeps” for years, but do not yet know why each sweep occurred. By finding rare dogs carrying an ancient variant at a certain marker, we can make associations with behavior, size, metabolism, and development that likely caused these unique signatures of “doggyness” in the genome.
Predicted Adult Weight
How does weight matter?
For people with puppies, you probably want to know how big of a crate to buy or just how big to expect your dog to become. But genetic weight is also useful for people with fully grown dogs. Just like with people, overweight and obese dogs suffer reduced length and quality of life. They can develop chronic health conditions and suffer from limited mobility and other issues. While over half of American dogs are overweight or obese, fewer than 15% of their owners realize it. By comparing your dog’s weight to their genetic predicted weight you have one more piece of information about their ideal weight. With this and other pieces of information like weight history and body condition, you and your veterinarian may want to discuss your dog’s diet, exercise, and weight control plan to give your pup the longest, healthiest life possible.
How do we predict weight?
Our test is the only dog DNA test that provides true genetic size not based just on breed ancestry but based on over a dozen genes known to influence a dog’s weight. It uses the most advanced science to determine your dog’s expected weight based on their sex, the combination of these genes, and breed-specific modifiers.
How accurate is the predicted weight?
Unlike in people, healthy weight in dogs is controlled largely by only a few genes. Our algorithm explains over 85% of the variance in healthy adult weight. However, due to a few as-yet-undiscovered genes and genetic interactions that affect size, this algorithm sometimes misses. Occasionally it misses by a fairly large amount especially when a dog has a breed with an unknown size-influencing gene. If we have missed your dog’s weight, your dog may be a scientific discovery waiting to happen! Please be sure to go to the Research tab and complete the Getting to know your dog survey, where you can answer questions about your dog’s current weight and body shape. This information will inform our ongoing research into the genetics of size and weight in dogs.
Revealing your dog’s ancient heritage
Haplotypes are particular DNA sequences that are inherited entirely from a dog’s mom (maternal) or dad (paternal).
Because they are inherited whole, your dog and his or her mom share the exact same maternal haplotype. If you have a male dog, your dog and his dad share the exact same paternal haplotype (female dogs don’t inherit paternal haplotypes).
Because most breeds were started with only a few individual dogs, many breeds are dominated by only one or a few haplotypes.
Revealing your dog’s ancient heritage
Haplogroups are groups of similar DNA sequences (called haplotypes) that are inherited entirely from the mother (maternal) or father (paternal) and don’t get shuffled up like other parts of your dog’s genome.
These groups all originally descend from one male or female wolf, usually one that lived tens of thousands of years ago. Because they are inherited whole and not shuffled like other DNA, they can be used to trace the ancestral routes that dogs took around the globe en route to your home.
Only male dogs have paternal haplogroups because they are determined by the Y chromosome, which only male dogs have. Both males and females have maternal haplogroups, which come from a part of DNA called the mitochondrial DNA.
Breed analysisBreed analysis is based on comparing your dog’s DNA with the DNA of dogs from over 350 breeds, types and varieties.
How are Kobe's ancestors represented in his DNA?
All dogs are related and share some DNA. Siblings share lots of their DNA (half of it in fact), cousins share a bit less (an eighth), and so on. Because dog breeds are made up of a closed group of dogs, all dogs in that breed share a lot of their DNA, typically about as much as second cousins, though it varies by breed. Different breeds that are closely related share somewhat less DNA, and dogs from very different breeds share even less DNA (but still much more DNA than either dog shares with a cat).
DNA is inherited in pieces, called chromosomes, that are passed along from parent to offspring. Each generation, these chromosomes are broken up and shuffled a bit in a process known as recombination. So, the length of the segments your dog shares with his ancestors decreases with each generation above him: he shares longer segments with his mom than his grandma, longer segments with his grandma than his great-grandma, and so on.
How does Embark know which breeds are in Kobe?
We can use the length of segments Kobe shares with our reference dogs to see how many generations it has been since they last shared an ancestor. Long segments of DNA that are identical to known purebred dogs tell Embark's scientists that Kobe has, without a doubt, a relative from that breed. By testing over 200,000 genetic markers, we build up his genes one DNA segment at a time, to learn the ancestry with great certainty. Other dog DNA tests look at many fewer genetic markers and have to take a guess at breed ancestry based on that.
What does this mean for Kobe's looks and behavior?
Look closely and you'll probably find Kobe has some physical and/or behavioral resemblance with his ancestor's breeds. The exact similarity depends on which parts of DNA Kobe shares with each breed. Some traits associated with each breed are listed in the Breed & Ancestry section of our website. Embark will tell you even more about Kobe's traits soon!
P.S. In a small proportion of cases, we find dogs that don’t share segments with other dogs we have tested, indicating the presence of a rare breed that is not part of our reference panel or possibly a true "village dog" without any purebred relatives at all. In these rare cases we contact the owner to find out more and let them know about their unique dog before they get their results. With this in-depth detective work, we are pushing science forward by identifying genetically unique groups of dogs.
Still have questions?
Yes! Some dogs descend from other dogs that were themselves mixed breed. These other dogs can give small contributions to the ancestry of your dog, so small that they are no longer recognizable as any one particular breed. We call this portion unresolved or “Supermutt” since it confers super powers! Just kidding. But we do think supermutts really are super!
For Kobe we have been able to go further, and identify some of the breeds that we think may have been part of his heritage and have contributed to the Supermutt portion of his genome. We cannot be sure, given how little of their DNA has carried down to Kobe, but we thought you might like to know our best guess anyway!
Likely breeds that contribute to Supermutt:
What are “Dogs Like Kobe?”
“Dogs Like Kobe” are based on the percentage of breeds the two dogs have in common. For example, two dogs that are both 27% Golden Retriever and 73% Poodle will have a score of 100%. Sometimes dogs with high scores look alike, and sometimes they don’t — either way the comparison is based on each dog’s unique DNA, which is much more accurate than judging by looks.
“Kobe was rescued from a shelter in Incline Village, Nevada!”
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Genetic Breed Result
Chihuahuas have a huge personality that defies their tiny frame, known to be highly active and intelligent canines.
American Pit Bull Terrier
The American Pit Bull Terrier originated in the British Isles and descends from the Mastiff-type dogs introduced to England in antiquity. The breed was brought over to the United States by English immigrants in the 1800s, and quickly became one of the most popular and widespread breeds there.
A highly intelligent and playful dog, Miniature and Toy Poodles make for great lap dogs and companions.
The Pomeranian is a cocky, animated companion with an extroverted personality.
The Dachshund, meaning “badger dog” in German, is a lively breed with a friendly personality and a great sense of smell. Known for their long and low bodies, they are spirited hunters that excel in both above and below-ground work. They come in three different coat varieties (smooth, wirehaired or longhaired) and can be miniature or standard size.
American bulldogs are enjoying a healthy increase in popularity, either as a working/protector dog or as a family pet. All over the world, they are used variously as "hog dogs" (catching escaped pigs or hunting razorbacks), as cattle drovers and as working or sport K-9s. American Bulldogs also successfully compete in several dog sports such as dog obedience, Iron Dog competition and weight pulling.
American Staffordshire Terrier
American Staffordshire Terriers are powerful but playful dogs that are both loyal and affectionate with their owners.
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Dogs Like Kobe
Discover dogs who share a similar breed mix to Kobe. A higher score means the two dogs have more of their breed mix in common. A score of 100% means they share the exact same breed mix!
Click or tap on a pic to learn more about each dog and see an in-depth comparison of their DNA, breeds, and more.
Building blocks of life
See which breed every part of Kobe’s DNA comes from!
Genes from your dog’s breeds serve as the building blocks to creating your unique pooch
Dogs have 39 pairs of chromosomes, almost double humans who have 23. 38 of those pairs are the same for all dogs while the 39th is the sex chromosomes - two X’s for females and one X and one Y for males. One copy of each chromosome came from your dog’s mother and one from your dog’s father. Each copy contains between 24 million and 123 million bases, or letters of DNA code, for 2.5 billion total letters inherited from each parent. This chromosome illustration shows a representation of each of your dog’s 38 pairs of chromosomes (excluding the X and Y sex chromosomes).
Because the members of a breed have similar stretches of DNA, we can use our 200,000+ genetic markers to determine what part of each chromosome in your dog came from what breed. For each pair of chromosomes, your dog’s mom and dad each gave your dog one copy of that chromosome, for a grand total of 78 chromosomes. So if your dog’s mom was a poodle and dad was a schnauzer then the painting would show one complete poodle and one complete schnauzer chromosome for each pair. The more complex your dog’s ancestry, the more complex the painting, as in each generation recombination (the splitting apart and "shuffling around" of genes between paired chromosomes) mixes up bits of chromosome from grandparents, great-grandparents, and beyond.
Each trait your dog exhibits, such as fur shedding, is based on the letter at one or more locations in your dog’s genome. For example the location determining if your dog sheds their fur is located on chromosome 1. Some other traits, like size, are complexly inherited from many locations, including ones on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 7, 10, 15, and more. Your dog looks the way it does not because of averaging or blending the breeds that form it, but because specific traits were inherited from specific breeds. That’s one reason your mix may look, act, and have certain health issues much more like one breed than another!
Would you like more information? You can contact us at:
Breed Reveal Video
Our algorithms predict this is the most likely family tree to explain Kobe’s breed mix, but this family tree may not be the only possible one.Learn more about Embark
Through Kobe’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace his mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that his ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.
A1a is the most common maternal lineage among Western dogs. This lineage traveled from the site of dog domestication in Central Asia to Europe along with an early dog expansion perhaps 10,000 years ago. It hung around in European village dogs for many millennia. Then, about 300 years ago, some of the prized females in the line were chosen as the founding dogs for several dog breeds. That set in motion a huge expansion of this lineage. It's now the maternal lineage of the overwhelming majority of Mastiffs, Labrador Retrievers and Gordon Setters. About half of Boxers and less than half of Shar-Pei dogs descend from the A1a line. It is also common across the world among village dogs, a legacy of European colonialism.
Part of the large A1a haplogroup, this haplotype occurs most frequently in Staffordshire Terriers, Labrador Retrievers, and English Bulldogs.
Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:
Shar Pei dogs think A1a is the coolest!Learn more about Embark
Through Kobe’s Y-chromosome we can trace his father’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that his ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.
A2a is a truly ancient lineage. Unlike the recent upstart A1 lineages which found their way from a few popular European males a couple hundred years ago into many dogs in many breeds, A2a shows ancient roots without major recent expansion. It is likely one of the oldest eastern Eurasian male lineages of dogs, where it has existed for thousands of years. Nowadays, it's commonly found in Tibetan Terriers and Chow Chows as well as in Southeastern Asian village dogs. The Chow Chow seems to have been depicted in sculpture over 2,000 years ago, so this is an ancient lineage indeed, and dogs with it have a long and noble pedigree! Males from this lineage have continued to be bred in similar forms and breeds for millennia.
Part of the A2a haplogroup, this rare haplotype occurs in Papua New Guinea and Vietnam.
Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:
The large-sized Tibetan Mastiff descends from this ancient lineage.Learn more about Embark