What is Embark?

Goldie

European Village Dog

“Goldie is a rescue dog from Romania. I think she is about a year old. I don't know much about her background other than that she was found with a chain around her neck so tight that it had grown into her skin. She is still completely adorable with people, including babies (especially babies with squeaky toys). Goldie is very soft with a white patch on her head and freckled nose and paws. For some reason, she likes to sleep next to my head and share my pillow. We fall asleep nose to nose.”

This dog has been viewed 146 times and been given 3 wags

Genetic Breed Result

Learn how it’s done

European Village Dog

Village dog trace breed analysis

Village dogs often have short stretches of DNA that match purebred dogs, due to a distant common ancestor or a more recent mating between a purebred and a village dog. Goldie has short stretches of DNA in common with these breeds:

What exactly are village dogs?

Village dogs are the free-breeding, free-roaming “outside” dogs found around the world living in and around human settlements big and small. They are also known as island dogs, pariah dogs, or free-ranging dogs.

Many village dog populations precede the formation of modern breed dogs.

They make up about 3/4s of the billion or so dogs living on Earth today. They serve as trash cleaners, sentinels, and even sometimes companions while still retaining much of their freedom. Embark’s founders have studied village dogs on six continents since 2007 in their efforts to understand the history, traits, and health of the domestic dog. Through this work they have discovered the origins of the dog in Central Asia, and also identified genetic regions involved in domestication and local adaptation, such as the high altitude adaptation in Himalayan dogs. Embark is the only dog DNA test that includes diverse village dogs from around the world in its breed reference panel.

So what breeds are in my dog?

In a very real sense, European Village Dog is the actual breed of your dog. Village dogs like this descend from separate lines of dogs than the lines that have been bred into standardized breeds like Labradors and Poodles. If you trace the family tree of Goldie back, you won’t find any ancestral dogs that are part of any of those standardized breeds.

European Village Dog European Village Dog
Europe is the cradle of many dog breeds which were formed from free-breeding village dogs living in Europe for many millenia. These dogs adapted to the cold winters of Scandanavia and the hot summers of Spain, and they also, over time, found many ways to be useful to the humans they lived near. Some became hunters of everything from boar to squirrels while others became talented sheep herders, guardians, or just companions. Some of these dogs eventually became the founders of many popular dog breeds today, though most village dogs just continued living on as free-breeding village dogs even after the formation of modern breeds. Now they are found mostly in southern and eastern Europe.
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Genetic Stats

Wolfiness: 0.8 % MEDIUM Learn More
Predicted Adult Weight: 32 lbs Learn More
Genetic Age: 22 human years Learn More

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Traits

Maternal Haplotype

Paternal Haplotype

Would you like more information? Have you found a lost dog wearing an Embark dog tag? You can contact us at:

Village dogs have lived just about everywhere across the world for thousands of years. Long before there were any recognized dog breeds, there were village dogs around the fires and trash heaps of early human villages. Goldie is one of the lucky 1% of Embark dogs who are part of this ancient heritage, not descended from a specific breed, but continuing the ancient lineage of dogs that were our first, best friends.

We can estimate where Goldie is from by finding other village dogs with similar DNA. This map shows the results. Each point represents one group of village dogs we sampled. We found dogs the most similar in the red areas, and the most different in the blue areas. Goldie most likely came from the red areas.
Similarity to village dog groups around the world

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Health

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Maternal Haplotype

Paternal Haplotype

Summary

0
AT RISK
0
CARRIER
165
CLEAR
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Clinical traits

These genetic traits are valuable to your veterinarian and can inform the clinical decisions and diagnoses they make.

Alanine Aminotransferase Activity result: Normal
Known to be highly expressed in liver cells, activity levels of alanine aminotransferase, or ALT, is a common value on most blood chemistry panels and is known to be a se…
Goldie has two normal alleles at ALT.

Not At Risk

Good news! Goldie did not test positive for any of the genetic diseases that Embark screens for. Read on to learn more about the conditions we test for, but rest assured that Goldie does not have the mutations known to cause them.

It is still important to let your veterinarian know these results because they could help guide Goldie’s diagnosis and treatment if she gets sick in the future. Many other diseases caused by environmental factors or undiscovered genetic variants can cause symptoms similar to diseases we test for. By ruling out these mutations, your veterinarian will be able to find the true cause more quickly. Your veterinarian will also know they can safely prescribe medications some dogs are sensitive to.

Not A Carrier

Good news! Goldie is not a carrier for any of the genetic diseases that Embark tests for.

Common Conditions

Good news! Goldie tested clear for 8 other common genetic diseases that Embark tests for.
Condition List

MDR1 Drug Sensitivity
(MDR1)
Clinical

Sensitivity to certain classes of drugs, notably the parasiticide ivermectin, as well as certain gastroprotectant and anti-cancer medications, occurs in dogs with mutatio…

Von Willebrand Disease Type II
(VWF Exon 28)
Blood

Coagulopathies represent a broad category of diseases that affect blood clotting, which can lead to symptoms such as easy bruising or bleeding. Dogs with coagulopathies a…

Progressive Retinal Atrophy - prcd
Progressive rod-cone degeneration (PRCD Exon 1)
Eyes

This retinal disease causes progressive, nonpainful vision loss. The retina contains the cells, photoreceptors, that collect information about light: that is, they are th…

Primary Lens Luxation
(ADAMTS17)
Eyes

This surgically correctable condition causes the lens to spontaneously detach from its normal residence within the pupil, leading to reduced visual acuity and irritation …

Hyperuricosuria and Hyperuricemia or Urolithiasis
(SLC2A9)
Kidney and Bladder

This condition causes kidney and bladder stones composed of urate; if caught early, it is responsive to dietary management. Uric acid is an intermediate of purine metabol…

Degenerative Myelopathy
(SOD1A)
Brain and Spinal Cord

A disease of mature dogs, this is a progressive degenerative disorder of the spinal cord that can cause muscle wasting and gait abnormalities. Affected dogs do not usuall…

Dilated Cardiomyopathy
(PDK4)
Heart

The most common acquired heart disease of dogs, this is a progressive disease of the heart ventricles: early diagnosis and treatment is key. The ventricles are the heavil…

Exercise-Induced Collapse
(DNM1)
Muscular

First characterized in field-trial lines of Labrador Retriever dogs, this muscle disorder can cause episodes of muscle weakness and sometimes collapse; after recovering, …

Other Conditions: Clear of 157

Goldie is clear of 157 other genetic diseases that Embark tests for.

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Traits

Maternal Haplotype

Paternal Haplotype

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Coat Color

A number of genes are known to affect coat color in dogs, and they all interact. In some cases, other genetic effects may also influence color and pattern.

Trait
Result
 
E Locus (Mask, Grizzle, Recessive Red)
ee
K Locus (Dominant Black)
kyky
A Locus (Agouti, Sable)
ayat
D Locus (Dilute, Blue, Fawn)
DD
B Locus (Brown, Chocolate, Liver, Red)
BB

Other Embark dogs with these Coat Color genes:

Other Coat Traits

Furnishings, shedding and curls are all genetic! And they all interact, too. In fact, the combination of these genes explains the coat phenotypes of 90% of AKC registered dog breeds.

Trait
Result
 
Furnishings / Improper Coat (RSPO2)
II
Long Haircoat (FGF5)
TT
Shedding (MC5R)
TT
Curly Coat (KRT71)
CC

More information on coat type genetics: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2897713/figure/F3/

Other Embark dogs with these Coat Traits genes:

Other Body Features

Trait
Result
 
Brachycephaly (BMP3)
CC
Natural Bobtail (T)
CC
Hind Dewclaws (LMBR1)
CT
Blue Eye Color
LINKAGE
N/N

Body Size

Body size is a complex trait that is affected by both genetic and environmental variation. Our genetic analysis includes genes that, together, explain over 80% of the variation in dog body size. It does not account for runting or stunting; nor does it account for the interactions between various genes both known and unknown.

Trait
Result
 
Body Size - IGF1
NI
Body Size - IGF1R
GA
Body Size - STC2
TT
Body Size - GHR (E195K)
AA
Body Size - GHR (P177L)
CC

Other Embark dogs with these Body Size genes:

Performance

Trait
Result
 
Altitude Adaptation (EPAS1)
GG

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Maternal Haplotype

Paternal Haplotype

Through Goldie’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace her mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that her ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

B1

Haplotype

B1b

Map

B1

Goldie’s Haplogroup

B1 is the second most common maternal lineage in breeds of European or American origin. It is the female line of the majority of Golden Retrievers, Basset Hounds, and Shih Tzus, and about half of Beagles, Pekingese and Toy Poodles. This lineage is also somewhat common among village dogs that carry distinct ancestry from these breeds. We know this is a result of B1 dogs being common amongst the European dogs that their conquering owners brought around the world, because nowhere on earth is it a very common lineage in village dogs. It even enables us to trace the path of (human) colonization: Because most Bichons are B1 and Bichons are popular in Spanish culture, B1 is now fairly common among village dogs in Latin America.

B1b

Goldie’s Haplotype

Part of the large B1 haplogroup, we see this haplotype in village dogs across the world, including those from Central America, the Middle East, South Asia, and the French Polynesian Islands. Among the 31 breed dogs we see it in, we see it in Poodles, Otterhounds, and Labrador Retrievers. It is also our most commonly-sampled Golden Retriever haplotype!

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

The B1 haplogroup can be found in village dogs like the Peruvian Village Dog, pictured above.

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Paternal Haplotype

This 'Paternal Haplotype' tab is for deep ancestral lineage going back thousands of years.

For recent ancestry—"What breeds did my dog inherit from her mom and dad?"—please refer to the Breed, Family Tree, or Summary tab.

The Paternal Haplotype refers to a dog’s deep ancestral lineage stretching back thousands of years, before there were any distinct breeds of dog. We determine the Paternal Haplotype by looking at a dog’s Y-chromosome—but not all dogs have Y-chromosomes!

Why can’t we show Paternal Haplotype results for female dogs?

All dogs have two sex chromosomes. Female dogs have two X-chromosomes (XX) and male dogs have one X-chromosome and one Y-chromosome (XY). When having offspring, female (XX) dogs always pass an X-chromosome to their puppy. Male (XY) dogs can pass either an X or a Y-chromosome—if the puppy receives an X-chromosome from its father then it will be a female (XX) puppy and if it receives a Y-chromosome then it will be a male (XY) puppy. As you can see, Y-chromosomes are passed down from a male dog only to its male offspring.

Since Goldie is a female (XX) dog, she has no Y-chromosome for us to analyze and determine a paternal haplotype.

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Maternal Haplotype