What is Embark?

Ginger

East Asian Village Dog

“Ginger was born in Taichung, Taiwan in late 2013. She was found in a hole at a construction site, at about age 3.5mo, with her sister. They had rubber bands stuck deeply around their necks. Her sister lost a leg due to the rubber bands. They have both healed well. Ginger lived at the animal hospital for the next 4 months before she came directly to me via a friend of mine who was returning from Taiwan to Seattle. Ginger is very smart, very fast, climbs trees, jumps high. She is part cat ;”

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Genetic Breed Result

Learn how it’s done

East Asian Village Dog

Village dog trace breed analysis

Village dogs often have short stretches of DNA that match purebred dogs, due to a distant common ancestor or a more recent mating between a purebred and a village dog. Ginger has short stretches of DNA in common with this breed:

What exactly are village dogs?

Village dogs are the free-breeding, free-roaming “outside” dogs found around the world living in and around human settlements big and small. They are also known as island dogs, pariah dogs, or free-ranging dogs.

Many village dog populations precede the formation of modern breed dogs.

They make up about 3/4s of the billion or so dogs living on Earth today. They serve as trash cleaners, sentinels, and even sometimes companions while still retaining much of their freedom. Embark’s founders have studied village dogs on six continents since 2007 in their efforts to understand the history, traits, and health of the domestic dog. Through this work they have discovered the origins of the dog in Central Asia, and also identified genetic regions involved in domestication and local adaptation, such as the high altitude adaptation in Himalayan dogs. Embark is the only dog DNA test that includes diverse village dogs from around the world in its breed reference panel.

So what breeds are in my dog?

In a very real sense, East Asian Village Dog is the actual breed of your dog. Village dogs like this descend from separate lines of dogs than the lines that have been bred into standardized breeds like Labradors and Poodles. If you trace the family tree of Ginger back, you won’t find any ancestral dogs that are part of any of those standardized breeds.

East Asian Village Dog East Asian Village Dog
Many years ago, when wolves began scavenging our hunting camps, they became gradually attuned to human life. Genetic changes in those wolves over time led to tameness, small body size and early age of first reproduction that soon after yielded what we see today in the East Asian village dogs.
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Genetic Stats

Wolfiness: 0.8 % MEDIUM Learn More
Predicted Adult Weight: 34 lbs Learn More
Genetic Age: 45 human years Learn More

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World Map

Traits

Maternal Haplotype

Paternal Haplotype

Would you like more information? Have you found a lost dog wearing an Embark dog tag? You can contact us at:

Village dogs have lived just about everywhere across the world for thousands of years. Long before there were any recognized dog breeds, there were village dogs around the fires and trash heaps of early human villages. Ginger is one of the lucky 1% of Embark dogs who are part of this ancient heritage, not descended from a specific breed, but continuing the ancient lineage of dogs that were our first, best friends.

We can estimate where Ginger is from by finding other village dogs with similar DNA. This map shows the results. Each point represents one group of village dogs we sampled. We found dogs the most similar in the red areas, and the most different in the blue areas. Ginger most likely came from the red areas.
Similarity to village dog groups around the world

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Traits

Maternal Haplotype

Paternal Haplotype

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Coat Color

A number of genes are known to affect coat color in dogs, and they all interact. In some cases, other genetic effects may also influence color and pattern.

Trait
Result
 
E Locus (Mask, Grizzle, Recessive Red)
Ee
K Locus (Dominant Black)
kyky
A Locus (Agouti, Sable)
ayay
D Locus (Dilute, Blue, Fawn)
DD
B Locus (Brown, Chocolate, Liver, Red, Dudley)
BB

Other Embark dogs with these Coat Color genes:

Other Coat Traits

Furnishings, shedding and curls are all genetic! And they all interact, too. In fact, the combination of these genes explains the coat phenotypes of 90% of AKC registered dog breeds.

Trait
Result
 
Furnishings / Improper Coat (RSPO2)
II
Long Haircoat (FGF5)
GT
Shedding (MC5R)
CT
Curly Coat (KRT71)
CC
Hairlessness (FOXI3)
LINKAGE
N/N
Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 2 - OCA2, Doberman Z Factor Albinism (SLC45A2)
LINKAGE
N/N

More information on coat type genetics: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2897713/figure/F3/

Other Embark dogs with these Coat Traits genes:

Other Body Features

Trait
Result
 
Brachycephaly (BMP3)
CC
Natural Bobtail (T)
CC
Hind Dewclaws (LMBR1)
CC
Blue Eye Color
LINKAGE
N/N

Body Size

Body size is a complex trait that is affected by both genetic and environmental variation. Our genetic analysis includes genes that, together, explain over 80% of the variation in dog body size. It does not account for runting or stunting; nor does it account for the interactions between various genes both known and unknown.

Trait
Result
 
Body Size - IGF1
NI
Body Size - IGF1R
GG
Body Size - STC2
TA
Body Size - GHR (E195K)
GG
Body Size - GHR (P177L)
CC

Other Embark dogs with these Body Size genes:

Performance

Trait
Result
 
Altitude Adaptation (EPAS1)
GG

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World Map

Maternal Haplotype

Paternal Haplotype

Through Ginger’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace her mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that her ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

B1

Haplotype

B6/8/67

Map

B1

Ginger’s Haplogroup

B1 is the second most common maternal lineage in breeds of European or American origin. It is the female line of the majority of Golden Retrievers, Basset Hounds, and Shih Tzus, and about half of Beagles, Pekingese and Toy Poodles. This lineage is also somewhat common among village dogs that carry distinct ancestry from these breeds. We know this is a result of B1 dogs being common amongst the European dogs that their conquering owners brought around the world, because nowhere on earth is it a very common lineage in village dogs. It even enables us to trace the path of (human) colonization: Because most Bichons are B1 and Bichons are popular in Spanish culture, B1 is now fairly common among village dogs in Latin America.

B6/8/67

Ginger’s Haplotype

Part of the large B1 haplogroup, this common haplotype occurs in village dogs from South America to the Middle East, all the way down to the French Polynesian Islands. Among the 12 breed dogs we have seen it in, it occurs most frequently among German Shepherd Dogs, English Springer Spaniels, and Havanese.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

The B1 haplogroup can be found in village dogs like the Peruvian Village Dog, pictured above.

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World Map

Traits

Paternal Haplotype

This 'Paternal Haplotype' tab is for deep ancestral lineage going back thousands of years.

For recent ancestry—"What breeds did my dog inherit from her mom and dad?"—please refer to the Breed, Family Tree, or Summary tab.

The Paternal Haplotype refers to a dog’s deep ancestral lineage stretching back thousands of years, before there were any distinct breeds of dog. We determine the Paternal Haplotype by looking at a dog’s Y-chromosome—but not all dogs have Y-chromosomes!

Why can’t we show Paternal Haplotype results for female dogs?

All dogs have two sex chromosomes. Female dogs have two X-chromosomes (XX) and male dogs have one X-chromosome and one Y-chromosome (XY). When having offspring, female (XX) dogs always pass an X-chromosome to their puppy. Male (XY) dogs can pass either an X or a Y-chromosome—if the puppy receives an X-chromosome from its father then it will be a female (XX) puppy and if it receives a Y-chromosome then it will be a male (XY) puppy. As you can see, Y-chromosomes are passed down from a male dog only to its male offspring.

Since Ginger is a female (XX) dog, she has no Y-chromosome for us to analyze and determine a paternal haplotype.

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World Map

Traits

Maternal Haplotype