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“Pippa”
Dis-Moi Pourquoi Pippa

Dachshund

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Place of Birth

Lyles, TN, USA

Current Location

Radford, VA, USA

From

Lyles, TN, USA

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Registration

American Kennel Club: HP56702102
Microchip: 956000010704421

Genetic Breed Result

Dachshund

Dachshund

The Dachshund, meaning “badger dog” in German, is a lively breed with a friendly personality and a great sense of smell. Known for their long and low bodies, they are spirited hunters that excel in both above and below-ground work. They come in three different coat varieties (smooth, wirehaired or longhaired) and can be miniature or standard size.

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Genetic Stats

Predicted Adult Weight

14 lbs

Genetic Age
30 human years

Based on the date of birth provided

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Health Summary

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Pippa is at increased risk for one genetic health condition.

And inherited one variant that you should learn more about.

Intervertebral Disc Disease (Type I)

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Pippa inherited both copies of the variant we tested

How to interpret this result

Pippa has two copies of an FGF4 retrogene on chromosome 12. In some breeds such as Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, and Dachshunds (among others) this variant is found in nearly all dogs. While those breeds are known to have an elevated risk of IVDD, many dogs in those breeds never develop IVDD. For mixed breed dogs and purebreds of other breeds where this variant is not as common, risk for Type I IVDD is greater for individuals with this variant than for similar dogs.

What is Intervertebral Disc Disease (Type I)?

Type I Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD) is a back/spine issue that refers to a health condition affecting the discs that act as cushions between vertebrae. With Type I IVDD, affected dogs can have a disc event where it ruptures or herniates towards the spinal cord. This pressure on the spinal cord causes neurologic signs which can range from a wobbly gait to impairment of movement. Chondrodystrophy (CDDY) refers to the relative proportion between a dog’s legs and body, wherein the legs are shorter and the body longer. There are multiple different variants that can cause a markedly chondrodystrophic appearance as observed in Dachshunds and Corgis. However, this particular variant is the only one known to also increase the risk for IVDD.

ALT Activity

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Pippa inherited one copy of the variant we tested

Why is this important to your vet?

Pippa has one copy of a variant associated with reduced ALT activity as measured on veterinary blood chemistry panels. Please inform your veterinarian that Pippa has this genotype, as ALT is often used as an indicator of liver health and Pippa is likely to have a lower than average resting ALT activity. As such, an increase in Pippa’s ALT activity could be evidence of liver damage, even if it is within normal limits by standard ALT reference ranges.

What is ALT Activity?

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a clinical tool that can be used by veterinarians to better monitor liver health. This result is not associated with liver disease. ALT is one of several values veterinarians measure on routine blood work to evaluate the liver. It is a naturally occurring enzyme located in liver cells that helps break down protein. When the liver is damaged or inflamed, ALT is released into the bloodstream.

Breed-Relevant Genetic Conditions

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Progressive Retinal Atrophy, crd4/cord1 (RPGRIP1)

Identified in Dachshunds

Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIA, Sanfilippo Syndrome Type A, MPS IIIA (SGSH Exon 6, Dachshund Variant)

Identified in Dachshunds

Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis 1, NCL 1 (PPT1 Exon 8, Dachshund Variant 1)

Identified in Dachshunds

Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis 2, NCL 2 (TPP1 Exon 4, Dachshund Variant 2)

Identified in Dachshunds

Narcolepsy (HCRTR2 Exon 1, Dachshund Variant)

Identified in Dachshunds

Osteogenesis Imperfecta (SERPINH1, Dachshund Variant)

Identified in Dachshunds

Additional Genetic Conditions

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Explore the genetics behind your dog’s appearance and size.

Coat Color

Coat Color

E Locus (MC1R)
No dark mask or grizzle (EE)
K Locus (CBD103)
More likely to have a patterned haircoat (kyky)
Intensity Loci LINKAGE
Any light hair likely apricot or red (Intense Red Pigmentation)
A Locus (ASIP)
Black/Brown and tan coat color pattern (atat)
D Locus (MLPH)
Dark areas of hair and skin are not lightened (Dd)
B Locus (TYRP1)
Brown hair and skin (bb)
Saddle Tan (RALY)
Not saddle tan patterned (II)
S Locus (MITF)
Likely flash, parti, piebald, or extreme white (spsp)
M Locus (PMEL)
No merle alleles (mm)
H Locus (Harlequin)
No harlequin alleles (hh)
Other Coat Traits

Other Coat Traits

Furnishings (RSPO2) LINKAGE
Likely unfurnished (no mustache, beard, and/or eyebrows) (II)
Coat Length (FGF5)
Likely short or mid-length coat (GT)
Shedding (MC5R)
Likely light to moderate shedding (TT)
Hairlessness (FOXI3) LINKAGE
Very unlikely to be hairless (NN)
Hairlessness (SGK3)
Very unlikely to be hairless (NN)
Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 2 (SLC45A2) LINKAGE
Likely not albino (NN)
Coat Texture (KRT71)
Likely straight coat (CC)
Other Body Features

Other Body Features

Muzzle Length (BMP3)
Likely medium or long muzzle (CC)
Tail Length (T)
Likely normal-length tail (CC)
Hind Dewclaws (LMBR1)
Likely to have hind dew claws (CT)
Blue Eye Color (ALX4) LINKAGE
Less likely to have blue eyes (NN)
Back Muscling & Bulk, Large Breed (ACSL4)
Likely normal muscling (CC)
Body Size

Body Size

Body Size (IGF1)
Smaller (II)
Body Size (IGFR1)
Smaller (AA)
Body Size (STC2)
Larger (TT)
Body Size (GHR - E191K)
Smaller (AA)
Body Size (GHR - P177L)
Larger (CC)
Performance

Performance

Altitude Adaptation (EPAS1)
Normal altitude tolerance (GG)
Appetite (POMC) LINKAGE
Normal food motivation (NN)
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Through Pippa’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace her mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that her ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

A1a

Haplotype

A381

Map

A1a

Dis-Moi Pourquoi Pippa’s Haplogroup

A1a is the most common maternal lineage among Western dogs. This lineage traveled from the site of dog domestication in Central Asia to Europe along with an early dog expansion perhaps 10,000 years ago. It hung around in European village dogs for many millennia. Then, about 300 years ago, some of the prized females in the line were chosen as the founding dogs for several dog breeds. That set in motion a huge expansion of this lineage. It's now the maternal lineage of the overwhelming majority of Mastiffs, Labrador Retrievers and Gordon Setters. About half of Boxers and less than half of Shar-Pei dogs descend from the A1a line. It is also common across the world among village dogs, a legacy of European colonialism.

A381

Dis-Moi Pourquoi Pippa’s Haplotype

Part of the large A1a haplogroup, this haplotype occurs most frequently in German Shepherd Dogs, Doberman Pinschers, and Dachshunds.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

Shar Pei dogs think A1a is the coolest!

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The Paternal Haplotype reveals a dog’s deep ancestral lineage, stretching back thousands of years to the original domestication of dogs.

Are you looking for information on the breeds that Pippa inherited from her mom and dad? Check out her breed breakdown.

Paternal Haplotype is determined by looking at a dog’s Y-chromosome—but not all dogs have Y-chromosomes!

Why can’t we show Paternal Haplotype results for female dogs?

All dogs have two sex chromosomes. Female dogs have two X-chromosomes (XX) and male dogs have one X-chromosome and one Y-chromosome (XY). When having offspring, female (XX) dogs always pass an X-chromosome to their puppy. Male (XY) dogs can pass either an X or a Y-chromosome—if the puppy receives an X-chromosome from its father then it will be a female (XX) puppy and if it receives a Y-chromosome then it will be a male (XY) puppy. As you can see, Y-chromosomes are passed down from a male dog only to its male offspring.

Since Pippa is a female (XX) dog, she has no Y-chromosome for us to analyze and determine a paternal haplotype.

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