What is Embark?

Costco

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See what’s hidden in the pages of Costco’s DNA story.

“Costco is a "Taiwan Dog". He is white. His birthdate is 1-12-14. He is Taiwan Dog #3 in the Formosan Mountain Dog/Taiwan Dog DNA project. Linda Beckelman is focal for the breeder in Taiwan who doesn't speak English.”

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Registration

Kennel Club of Taiwan: KCT TD 00118/14

Genetic Breed

East Asian Village Dog

What exactly are village dogs?

Village dogs are the free-breeding, free-roaming “outside” dogs found around the world living in and around human settlements big and small. They are also known as island dogs, pariah dogs, or free-ranging dogs.

Many village dog populations precede the formation of modern breed dogs.

They make up about 3/4s of the billion or so dogs living on Earth today. They serve as trash cleaners, sentinels, and even sometimes companions while still retaining much of their freedom. Embark’s founders have studied village dogs on six continents since 2007 in their efforts to understand the history, traits, and health of the domestic dog. Through this work they have discovered the origins of the dog in Central Asia, and also identified genetic regions involved in domestication and local adaptation, such as the high altitude adaptation in Himalayan dogs. Embark is the only dog DNA test that includes diverse village dogs from around the world in its breed reference panel.

So what breeds are in my dog?

In a very real sense, East Asian Village Dog is the actual breed of your dog. Village dogs like this descend from separate lines of dogs than the lines that have been bred into standardized breeds like Labradors and Poodles. If you trace the family tree of Costco back, you won’t find any ancestral dogs that are part of any of those standardized breeds.

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What’s your dog’s story? Find out with Embark!

Genetic Stats

Wolfiness: 0.9 % MEDIUM
Predicted Adult Weight: 54 lbs
Genetic Age: 41 human years

Explore more

Swipe left and right to explore more results, or choose a category below

World Map

>
See where in the world Costco came from.

Traits

>
Genes for coat color and type, body size and shape, and other characteristics.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about other dog breeds related to the breeds found in Costco.

Maternal Haplotype

>
Through the DNA inherited from Costco’s mother we can trace his ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Costco’s family has traveled.

Paternal Haplotype

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Costco’s DNA includes a story of where his father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

Let us know and we will contact Costco’s owner and make sure he is reunited with his family soon! Thank you for helping out our furry friends.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Costco find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Village dogs have lived just about everywhere across the world for thousands of years. Long before there were any recognized dog breeds, there were village dogs around the fires and trash heaps of early human villages. Costco is one of the lucky 1% of Embark dogs who are part of this ancient heritage, not descended from a specific breed, but continuing the ancient lineage of dogs that were our first, best friends.

We can estimate where Costco is from by finding other village dogs with similar DNA. This map shows the results. Each point represents one group of village dogs we sampled. We found dogs the most similar in the red areas, and the most different in the blue areas. Costco most likely came from the red areas.
Similarity to village dog groups around the world

Explore more

Swipe left and right to explore more results, or choose a category below

Traits

>
Genes for coat color and type, body size and shape, and other characteristics.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about other dog breeds related to the breeds found in Costco.

Maternal Haplotype

>
Through the DNA inherited from Costco’s mother we can trace his ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Costco’s family has traveled.

Paternal Haplotype

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Costco’s DNA includes a story of where his father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Costco find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Coat Color

A number of genetic loci are known to affect coat color in dogs, and they all interact. In some cases, other genetic effects may also influence color and pattern.

Some other Embark dogs with this Coat Color genotype:

E Locus (Mask, Grizzle, Recessive Red)
ee
Chromosome 5

Controls the characteristic melanistic mask seen in the German Shepherd and Pug as well as the grizzled "widow's peak" of the Afghan and Borzoi. Melanistic mask (Em) is dominant to grizzle (Eg) which is dominant to black (E) and red (e). Dogs that are EE or Ee are able to produce normal black pigment, but its distribution will be dependent on the genotypes at the K and A Loci. Dogs that are ee will be a shade of red or cream regardless of their genotype at K and A. The shade of red, which can range from a deep copper like the Irish Setter to the near-white of some Golden Retrievers, is dependent on other genetic factors including the Intensity (I) Locus, which has yet to be genetically mapped.

Want to help us map I Locus? If you haven't already, complete your ee pup's Embark profile with a photo! Remember, a picture is worth a thousand words!

Citations: Schmutz et al 2003 , Dreger and Schmutz 2010 ,

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/masks.html

K Locus (Dominant Black)
KBky
Chromosome 16

Causes a dominant black coat. Dogs with a dominant KB allele have black coats regardless of their genotype at the A locus; the coat color of dogs homozygous for the recessive ky allele are controlled by A locus. Alleles: KB > ky

Citations: Candille et al 2007

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/black.htm

A Locus (Agouti, Sable)
ayay
Chromosome 24

Determines whether hair pigment is produced in a banded red and black pattern or solid black. Fawn or sable (ay) is dominant to wolf sable (aw) which is dominant to black-and-tan (at), which is in turn dominant to recessive black (a).

Citations: Berryere et al 2005 , Dreger and Schmutz 2011 ,

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/tan.html

D Locus (Dilute, Blue, Fawn)
DD
Chromosome 25

Lightens a black coat to blue and a red coat to buff. A dilute phenotype requires two copies of the recessive d allele.

Citations: Drogemuller et al 2007

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/dilutes.html

B Locus (Brown, Chocolate, Liver, Red)
BB
Chromosome 11

Lightens a black coat to brown, chocolate or liver. The brown phenotype requires two copies of the recessive b allele. Red or cream dogs that carry two b alleles remain red or cream but have brown noses and footpads.

Citations: Schmutz et al 2002

More information: http://www.doggenetics.co.uk/liver.html

Other Coat Traits

Furnishings, shedding and curls are all genetic! And they all interact, too. In fact, the combination of these genetic loci explain the coat phenotypes of 90% of AKC registered dog breeds.

For more information on the genetics of coat types you can refer to https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2897713/figure/F3/

Some other Embark dogs with this Coat Traits genotype:

Furnishings / Improper Coat (RSPO2)
II
Chromosome 13

Confers the distinguished moustache, beard, and eyebrows characteristic of breeds like the Schnauzer, Scottish Terrier, and Wire Haired Dachshund; only one copy of the dominant F allele is required for furnishings. The FI genotype is furnished but carries one allele for no furnishings, or improper coat. A dog with two I alleles has improper coat. The mutation is a 167-bp insertion which we measure indirectly using linked markers highly correlated with the insertion.

Citations: Cadieu et al 2010

Long Haircoat (FGF5)
GG
Chromosome 32

The FGF5 gene is known to affect hair length in many different species, including cats, dogs, mice, and humans! The "T" allele confers a long, silky haircoat as observed in the Yorkshire Terrier and the Long Haired Whippet. The ancestral "G" allele causes a shorter coat as seen in the Boxer or the American Staffordshire Terrier.

Citations: Housley & Venta 2006 , Cadieu et al 2010

Shedding (MC5R)
CC
Chromosome 1

Affects shedding propensity in non-wire-haired dogs. Dogs with the ancestral C allele, like many Labradors and German Shepherd Dogs, are heavy or seasonal shedders, while those with one or more T allele, including many Boxers, Shih Tzus and Chihuahuas, tend to be low shedders. Dogs with furnished/wire-haired coats tend to be low shedders regardless of their MC5R genotype.

Citations: Hayward et al 2016

Curly Coat (KRT71)
CC
Chromosome 27

Causes the curly coat characteristic of Poodles and Bichons Frises. Dogs need at least one copy of the "T" allele to have a wavy or curly coat; the ancestral "C" allele is associated with a straight coat.

Citations: Cadieu et al 2010

Other Body Features

Brachycephaly (BMP3)
CC
Chromosome 32

Affects skull size and shape. Many brachycephalic or "smushed face” breeds such as the English Bulldog, Pug, and Pekingese have two copies of the derived A allele. Mesocephalic (Staffordshire Terrier, Labrador) and dolichocephalic (Whippet, Collie) dogs have one, or more commonly two, copies of the ancestral C allele. At least five different genes affect snout length in dogs, with BMP3 being the only one with a known causal mutation. For example, the skull shape of some breeds, including the dolichocephalic Scottish Terrier or the brachycephalic Japanese Chin, appear to be caused by other genes.

Citations: Schoenbeck et al 2012

Natural Bobtail (T)
CC
Chromosome 1

Whereas most dogs have two C alleles and a long tail, dogs with one G allele are likely to have a bobtail, which is an unusually short or absent tail. This mutation causes natural bobtail in many breeds including the Pembroke Welsh Corgi, the Australian Shepherd, and the Brittany Spaniel. Dogs with GG genotypes have not been observed, suggesting that the GG genotype results in embryonic lethality.

Please note that this mutation does not explain every natural bobtail! While certain lineages of Boston Terrier, English Bulldog, Rottweiler, Miniature Schnauzer, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, and Parson Russell Terrier, and Dobermans are born with a natural bobtail, these breeds do not have this mutation. This suggests that other unknown genetic mutations can also lead to a natural bobtail. If your dog does not have a CG genotype but was born with a bobtail, please email us at howdy@embarkvet.com!

Citations: Haworth et al 2001 , Hytonen et al 2009

Hind Dewclaws (LMBR1)
CC
Chromosome 16

Common in certain breeds, hind dewclaws are extra, nonfunctional digits located midway between your dog's paw and hock. Dogs with at least one copy of the T allele have about a 50% of chance of having hind dewclaws.

Citations: Park et al 2008

Body Size

Body size is a complex trait that is affected by both genetic and environmental variation. Our genetic analysis includes genes that, together, explain over 80% of the variation in dog body size. It does not account for runting or stunting; nor does it account for the interactions between various genes both known and unknown.

Some other Embark dogs with this Body Size genotype:

Body Size - IGF1
NN
Chromosome 15

The "I" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Sutter et al 2007

Body Size - IGF1R
GG
Chromosome 3

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Hoopes et al 2012

Body Size - STC2
TA
Chromosome 4

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

Body Size - GHR (E195K)
GG
Chromosome 4

The "A" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

Body Size - GHR (P177L)
CC
Chromosome 4

The "T" allele is associated with smaller size.

Citations: Rimbault et al 2013

Performance

Altitude Adaptation (EPAS1)
GG
Chromosome 10

Confers hypoxia tolerance. Dogs with at least one A allele are more tolerant of high altitude environments. This mutation was originally identified in breeds from high altitude areas such as the Tibetan Mastiff.

Citations: Gou et al 2014

Explore more

Swipe left and right to explore more results, or choose a category below

World Map

>
See where in the world Costco came from.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about other dog breeds related to the breeds found in Costco.

Maternal Haplotype

>
Through the DNA inherited from Costco’s mother we can trace his ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Costco’s family has traveled.

Paternal Haplotype

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Costco’s DNA includes a story of where his father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Costco find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

DNA shows us the unique path to each of today’s recognized breeds by exposing the relatedness between them.
East Asian Village Dog
East Asian Village Dog
Many years ago, when wolves began scavenging our hunting camps, they became gradually attuned to human life. Genetic changes in those wolves over time led to tameness, small body size and early age of first reproduction that soon after yielded what we see today in the East Asian village dogs.

Some images and text courtesy of the AKC, used with permission.

Explore more

Swipe left and right to explore more results, or choose a category below

World Map

>
See where in the world Costco came from.

Traits

>
Genes for coat color and type, body size and shape, and other characteristics.

Maternal Haplotype

>
Through the DNA inherited from Costco’s mother we can trace his ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Costco’s family has traveled.

Paternal Haplotype

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Costco’s DNA includes a story of where his father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Costco find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Through Costco’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace his mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that his ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

C2

Haplotype

C3/14

Map

C2

Costco’s Haplogroup

C2 is a very old female lineage found more commonly among English Setters, English Bulldogs, and American Eskimo Dogs. We also see C2 in village dogs in South Asia. Rather than having a few characteristic breeds representing this lineage particularly well, it is present in a few uncommon individuals of many different breeds. Unlike some European breed lineages that have seen skyrocketing popularity along the path to the modern dogs we see today, C2 tends to reflect the deep history of man's best friend.

C3/14

Costco’s Haplotype

Part of the C2 haplogroup, this common haplotype occurs most often in English Setters, Cairn Terriers, Labrador Retrievers, and village dogs in Peru, Fiji, and across Africa.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

You can often find his haplogroup in the lovable English Bulldog.

Explore more

Swipe left and right to explore more results, or choose a category below

World Map

>
See where in the world Costco came from.

Traits

>
Genes for coat color and type, body size and shape, and other characteristics.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about other dog breeds related to the breeds found in Costco.

Paternal Haplotype

>
The Y-Chromosome is only passed down from father to son. Costco’s DNA includes a story of where his father’s ancestors came from. We’ll show you more about how we categorize his ancestors all based of the science of genetics.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Costco find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!

Through Costco’s Y-chromosome we can trace his father’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that his ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

A1a

Haplotype

H1a.8

Map

A1a

Costco’s Haplogroup

Some of the wolves that became the original dogs in Central Asia around 15,000 years ago came from this long and distinguished line of male dogs. After domestication, they followed their humans from Asia to Europe and then didn't stop there. They took root in Europe, eventually becoming the dogs that founded the Vizsla breed 1,000 years ago. The Vizsla is a Central European hunting dog, and all male Vizslas descend from this line. During the Age of Exploration, like their owners, these pooches went by the philosophy, "Have sail, will travel!" From the windy plains of Patagonia to the snug and homey towns of the American Midwest, the beaches of a Pacific paradise, and the broad expanse of the Australian outback, these dogs followed their masters to the outposts of empires. Whether through good fortune or superior genetics, dogs from the A1a lineage traveled the globe and took root across the world. Now you find village dogs from this line frolicking on Polynesian beaches, hanging out in villages across the Americas, and scavenging throughout Old World settlements. You can also find this "prince of patrilineages" in breeds as different as German Shepherds, Golden Retrievers, Pugs, Border Collies, Scottish Terriers, and Irish Wolfhounds. No male wolf line has been as successful as the A1a line!

H1a.8

Costco’s Haplotype

Part of the large A1a haplogroup, this very common haplotype occurs in village dogs throughout the world (including southeast Asia, which is uncommon for A1a’s). Among the 25 breeds we see this haplotype in, it occurs most frequently in Labrador Retriever, Vizsla, and English Springer Spaniel.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

Dogs with A1a lineage travelled during European Colonial times.

Explore more

Swipe left and right to explore more results, or choose a category below

World Map

>
See where in the world Costco came from.

Traits

>
Genes for coat color and type, body size and shape, and other characteristics.

Breed Families

>
Dog breeds have been created over time for work and companionship. Find out about other dog breeds related to the breeds found in Costco.

Maternal Haplotype

>
Through the DNA inherited from Costco’s mother we can trace his ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. Find out how far Costco’s family has traveled.

What’s your dog’s story?

Now that you have explored what’s behind Costco find out what your dog’s DNA has to tell you. Embark tells you more about your dog than you ever thought possible. Are you ready? Let’s go!