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“Scout”
Cathedral’s Head Over Heels

English Cocker Spaniel

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@oberonkennels

Current Location

USA

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Registration

American Kennel Club (AKC): SR 98156802

Genetic Breed Result

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English Cocker Spaniel

English Cockers are a medium-size dog with long ears and a happy disposition. The name Cocker comes from their use to hunt woodcock in England, although English Cockers have been used to hunt many other types of birds as well. They make great companion dogs for people who can give them the exercise they need.

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Genetic Stats

Predicted Adult Weight

37 lbs

Genetic Age
43 human years

Based on the date of birth provided

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Health Summary

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Scout is at increased risk for one genetic health condition.

And inherited one variant that you should learn more about.

Intervertebral Disc Disease (Type I)

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Scout inherited both copies of the variant we tested

How to interpret this result

Scout has two copies of an FGF4 retrogene on chromosome 12. In some breeds such as Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, and Dachshunds (among others) this variant is found in nearly all dogs. While those breeds are known to have an elevated risk of IVDD, many dogs in those breeds never develop IVDD. For mixed breed dogs and purebreds of other breeds where this variant is not as common, risk for Type I IVDD is greater for individuals with this variant than for similar dogs.

What is Intervertebral Disc Disease (Type I)?

Type I Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD) is a back/spine issue that refers to a health condition affecting the discs that act as cushions between vertebrae. With Type I IVDD, affected dogs can have a disc event where it ruptures or herniates towards the spinal cord. This pressure on the spinal cord causes neurologic signs which can range from a wobbly gait to impairment of movement. Chondrodystrophy (CDDY) refers to the relative proportion between a dog’s legs and body, wherein the legs are shorter and the body longer. There are multiple different variants that can cause a markedly chondrodystrophic appearance as observed in Dachshunds and Corgis. However, this particular variant is the only one known to also increase the risk for IVDD.

ALT Activity

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Scout inherited one copy of the variant we tested

Why is this important to your vet?

Scout has one copy of a variant associated with reduced ALT activity as measured on veterinary blood chemistry panels. Please inform your veterinarian that Scout has this genotype, as ALT is often used as an indicator of liver health and Scout is likely to have a lower than average resting ALT activity. As such, an increase in Scout’s ALT activity could be evidence of liver damage, even if it is within normal limits by standard ALT reference ranges.

What is ALT Activity?

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a clinical tool that can be used by veterinarians to better monitor liver health. This result is not associated with liver disease. ALT is one of several values veterinarians measure on routine blood work to evaluate the liver. It is a naturally occurring enzyme located in liver cells that helps break down protein. When the liver is damaged or inflamed, ALT is released into the bloodstream.

Breed-Relevant Genetic Conditions

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Progressive Retinal Atrophy, prcd (PRCD Exon 1)

Identified in English Cocker Spaniels

Familial Nephropathy (COL4A4 Exon 3, Cocker Spaniel Variant)

Identified in English Cocker Spaniels

Glycogen storage disease Type VII, Phosphofructokinase Deficiency, PFK Deficiency (PFKM, Whippet and English Springer Spaniel Variant)

Identified in English Cocker Spaniels

Acral Mutilation Syndrome (GDNF-AS, Spaniel and Pointer Variant)

Identified in English Cocker Spaniels

Exercise-Induced Collapse, EIC (DNM1)

Identified in English Cocker Spaniels

Additional Genetic Conditions

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Coat Color

Coat Color

E Locus (MC1R)
Can have a melanistic mask (Eme)
K Locus (CBD103)
More likely to have a mostly solid black or brown coat (KBKB)
Intensity Loci LINKAGE
No impact on coat pattern (Intermediate Red Pigmentation)
A Locus (ASIP)
Not expressed (atat)
D Locus (MLPH)
No Call
B Locus (TYRP1)
Black or gray hair and skin (BB)
Saddle Tan (RALY)
Not expressed (II)
S Locus (MITF)
Likely flash, parti, piebald, or extreme white (spsp)
M Locus (PMEL)
No merle alleles (mm)
H Locus (Harlequin)
No harlequin alleles (hh)
Other Coat Traits

Other Coat Traits

Furnishings (RSPO2) LINKAGE
Likely unfurnished (no mustache, beard, and/or eyebrows) (II)
Coat Length (FGF5)
Likely long coat (TT)
Shedding (MC5R)
Likely light to moderate shedding (TT)
Hairlessness (FOXI3) LINKAGE
Very unlikely to be hairless (NN)
Hairlessness (SGK3)
Very unlikely to be hairless (NN)
Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 2 (SLC45A2) LINKAGE
Likely not albino (NN)
Coat Texture (KRT71)
Likely straight coat (CC)
Other Body Features

Other Body Features

Muzzle Length (BMP3)
Likely medium or long muzzle (CC)
Tail Length (T)
Likely normal-length tail (CC)
Hind Dewclaws (LMBR1)
Unlikely to have hind dew claws (CC)
Blue Eye Color (ALX4) LINKAGE
Less likely to have blue eyes (NN)
Back Muscling & Bulk, Large Breed (ACSL4)
Likely normal muscling (CC)
Body Size

Body Size

Body Size (IGF1)
Smaller (II)
Body Size (IGFR1)
Larger (GG)
Body Size (STC2)
Larger (TT)
Body Size (GHR - E191K)
Smaller (AA)
Body Size (GHR - P177L)
Larger (CC)
Performance

Performance

Altitude Adaptation (EPAS1)
Normal altitude tolerance (GG)
Appetite (POMC) LINKAGE
Normal food motivation (NN)
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Through Scout’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace his mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that his ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

B1

Haplotype

B83

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B1

Cathedral’s Head Over Heels’s Haplogroup

B1 is the second most common maternal lineage in breeds of European or American origin. It is the female line of the majority of Golden Retrievers, Basset Hounds, and Shih Tzus, and about half of Beagles, Pekingese and Toy Poodles. This lineage is also somewhat common among village dogs that carry distinct ancestry from these breeds. We know this is a result of B1 dogs being common amongst the European dogs that their conquering owners brought around the world, because nowhere on earth is it a very common lineage in village dogs. It even enables us to trace the path of (human) colonization: Because most Bichons are B1 and Bichons are popular in Spanish culture, B1 is now fairly common among village dogs in Latin America.

B83

Cathedral’s Head Over Heels’s Haplotype

Part of the B1 haplogroup, this haplotype occurs most frequently in English Cocker Spaniels.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

The B1 haplogroup can be found in village dogs like the Peruvian Village Dog, pictured above.

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Through Scout’s Y-chromosome we can trace his father’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that his ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

A1a

Haplotype

H1a.14

Map

A1a

Cathedral’s Head Over Heels’s Haplogroup

Some of the wolves that became the original dogs in Central Asia around 15,000 years ago came from this long and distinguished line of male dogs. After domestication, they followed their humans from Asia to Europe and then didn't stop there. They took root in Europe, eventually becoming the dogs that founded the Vizsla breed 1,000 years ago. The Vizsla is a Central European hunting dog, and all male Vizslas descend from this line. During the Age of Exploration, like their owners, these pooches went by the philosophy, "Have sail, will travel!" From the windy plains of Patagonia to the snug and homey towns of the American Midwest, the beaches of a Pacific paradise, and the broad expanse of the Australian outback, these dogs followed their masters to the outposts of empires. Whether through good fortune or superior genetics, dogs from the A1a lineage traveled the globe and took root across the world. Now you find village dogs from this line frolicking on Polynesian beaches, hanging out in villages across the Americas, and scavenging throughout Old World settlements. You can also find this "prince of patrilineages" in breeds as different as German Shepherds, Golden Retrievers, Pugs, Border Collies, Scottish Terriers, and Irish Wolfhounds. No male wolf line has been as successful as the A1a line!

H1a.14

Cathedral’s Head Over Heels’s Haplotype

Part of the large A1a haplogroup, this haplotype occurs mainly in village dogs from Central and South Americas, but has also been spotted in Papua New Guinea. It also occurs frequently in Cocker Spaniels, English Cocker Spaniels, and Pembroke Welsh Corgis.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

Dogs with A1a lineage travelled during European Colonial times.

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