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“Monroe”
Blue Sky's Candle in the Wind

Field Spaniel

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“DOB 3/26/21. Monroe is the pick female from her litter. Harrison is the sire.”

Place of Birth

Greeley, CO, USA

Current Location

Greeley, CO, USA

From

Greeley, CO, USA

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Registration

American Kennel Club (AKC): SS25178205

Genetic Breed Result

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Field Spaniel

The Field Spaniel is a medium-sized breed dog of the spaniel type. They were originally developed to be all-black show dogs in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and were unpopular for work as a hunting dog. One of the rarest Spaniels outside of their native England, they are beautiful and soulful looking brown dogs.

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Health Summary

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Monroe is at increased risk for one genetic health condition.

And inherited two variants that you should learn more about.

Intervertebral Disc Disease (Type I)

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Monroe inherited both copies of the variant we tested

What does this result mean?

Follow-up by our experts indicates that this genetic variant is associated with an increase to Monroe’s risk for developing Intervertebral Disc Disease (Type I).

Scientific Basis

Research studies for this variant have been based on dogs of other breeds. While dogs with similar breeds to Monroe have not yet been the focus of research studies, our data indicates that Monroe is likely to be at increased risk.

Impact on Breeding

While further investigation is warranted to determine the clinical presentation and penetrance in Monroe’s breed, we recommend taking this genetic result into account when making breeding decisions.

What is Intervertebral Disc Disease (Type I)?

Type I Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD) is a back/spine issue that refers to a health condition affecting the discs that act as cushions between vertebrae. With Type I IVDD, affected dogs can have a disc event where it ruptures or herniates towards the spinal cord. This pressure on the spinal cord causes neurologic signs which can range from a wobbly gait to impairment of movement. Chondrodystrophy (CDDY) refers to the relative proportion between a dog’s legs and body, wherein the legs are shorter and the body longer. There are multiple different variants that can cause a markedly chondrodystrophic appearance as observed in Dachshunds and Corgis. However, this particular variant is the only one known to also increase the risk for IVDD.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy, crd4/cord1

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Monroe inherited one copy of the variant we tested

What does this result mean?

This result should not impact Monroe’s health but it could have consequences for siblings or other related dogs if they inherited two copies of the variant. We recommend discussing this result with their owners or breeders if you are in contact.

Impact on Breeding

Your dog carries this variant and will pass it on to ~50% of her offspring.

What is Progressive Retinal Atrophy, crd4/cord1?

PRA-CRD4/cord1 is a retinal disease that causes progressive, non-painful vision loss over a 1-2 year period. The retina contains cells, called photoreceptors, that collect information about light and send signals to the brain. There are two types of photoreceptors: rods, for night vision and movement, and cones, for day vision and color. This type of PRA leads to early loss of cone cells, causing day blindness before night blindness.

ALT Activity

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Monroe inherited one copy of the variant we tested

Why is this important to your vet?

Monroe has one copy of a variant associated with reduced ALT activity as measured on veterinary blood chemistry panels. Please inform your veterinarian that Monroe has this genotype, as ALT is often used as an indicator of liver health and Monroe is likely to have a lower than average resting ALT activity. As such, an increase in Monroe’s ALT activity could be evidence of liver damage, even if it is within normal limits by standard ALT reference ranges.

What is ALT Activity?

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a clinical tool that can be used by veterinarians to better monitor liver health. This result is not associated with liver disease. ALT is one of several values veterinarians measure on routine blood work to evaluate the liver. It is a naturally occurring enzyme located in liver cells that helps break down protein. When the liver is damaged or inflamed, ALT is released into the bloodstream.

Breed-Relevant Genetic Conditions

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Exercise-Induced Collapse, EIC (DNM1)

Identified in Field Spaniels

Additional Genetic Conditions

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Coat Color

Coat Color

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Other Coat Traits

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Body Size

Performance

Performance

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Through Monroe’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace her mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that her ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

C2

Haplotype

C17

Map

C2

Blue Sky's Candle in the Wind’s Haplogroup

C2 is a very old female lineage found more commonly among English Setters, English Bulldogs, and American Eskimo Dogs. We also see C2 in village dogs in South Asia. Rather than having a few characteristic breeds representing this lineage particularly well, it is present in a few uncommon individuals of many different breeds. Unlike some European breed lineages that have seen skyrocketing popularity along the path to the modern dogs we see today, C2 tends to reflect the deep history of man's best friend.

C17

Blue Sky's Candle in the Wind’s Haplotype

Part of the C2 haplogroup, this haplotype occurs most commonly in village dogs from Nepal.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

You can often find his haplogroup in the lovable English Bulldog.

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The Paternal Haplotype reveals a dog’s deep ancestral lineage, stretching back thousands of years to the original domestication of dogs.

Are you looking for information on the breeds that Monroe inherited from her mom and dad? Check out her breed breakdown.

Paternal Haplotype is determined by looking at a dog’s Y-chromosome—but not all dogs have Y-chromosomes!

Why can’t we show Paternal Haplotype results for female dogs?

All dogs have two sex chromosomes. Female dogs have two X-chromosomes (XX) and male dogs have one X-chromosome and one Y-chromosome (XY). When having offspring, female (XX) dogs always pass an X-chromosome to their puppy. Male (XY) dogs can pass either an X or a Y-chromosome—if the puppy receives an X-chromosome from its father then it will be a female (XX) puppy and if it receives a Y-chromosome then it will be a male (XY) puppy. As you can see, Y-chromosomes are passed down from a male dog only to its male offspring.

Since Monroe is a female (XX) dog, she has no Y-chromosome for us to analyze and determine a paternal haplotype.

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