What is Embark?

Bibby

Alaskan-type Husky

“Bibby came from Northern Whites Kennel in Chugiak, Alaska which is an Iditarod racing kennel. Although she has not ran in the Iditarod, 3 of her littermates have.”

Place of birth
Alaska, USA
Location
Alaska, USA
From
Alaska, USA

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Genetic Breed Result

Learn how it’s done

Alaskan-type Husky

What exactly are village dogs?

Village dogs are the free-breeding, free-roaming “outside” dogs found around the world living in and around human settlements big and small. They are also known as island dogs, pariah dogs, or free-ranging dogs.

Many village dog populations precede the formation of modern breed dogs.

They make up about 3/4s of the billion or so dogs living on Earth today. They serve as trash cleaners, sentinels, and even sometimes companions while still retaining much of their freedom. Embark’s founders have studied village dogs on six continents since 2007 in their efforts to understand the history, traits, and health of the domestic dog. Through this work they have discovered the origins of the dog in Central Asia, and also identified genetic regions involved in domestication and local adaptation, such as the high altitude adaptation in Himalayan dogs. Embark is the only dog DNA test that includes diverse village dogs from around the world in its breed reference panel.

So what breeds are in my dog?

In a very real sense, Alaskan-type Husky is the actual breed of your dog. Village dogs like this descend from separate lines of dogs than the lines that have been bred into standardized breeds like Labradors and Poodles. If you trace the family tree of Bibby back, you won’t find any ancestral dogs that are part of any of those standardized breeds.

Alaskan-type Husky Alaskan-type Husky
The Alaskan Husky is all athlete. These guys are extrememly similar to Siberian Huskies in terms of temprement. The Alaskan Husky is like their more athletic little brother.
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Genetic Stats

Wolfiness: 4.6 % HIGH Learn More
Predicted Adult Weight: 52 lbs Learn More
Genetic Age: 51 human years Learn More

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Health

Traits

Maternal Haplotype

Paternal Haplotype

Would you like more information? Have you found a lost dog wearing an Embark dog tag? You can contact us at:

Village dogs have lived just about everywhere across the world for thousands of years. Long before there were any recognized dog breeds, there were village dogs around the fires and trash heaps of early human villages. Bibby is one of the lucky 1% of Embark dogs who are part of this ancient heritage, not descended from a specific breed, but continuing the ancient lineage of dogs that were our first, best friends.

We can estimate where Bibby is from by finding other village dogs with similar DNA. This map shows the results. Each point represents one group of village dogs we sampled. We found dogs the most similar in the red areas, and the most different in the blue areas. Bibby most likely came from the red areas.
Similarity to village dog groups around the world

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Health

Traits

Maternal Haplotype

Paternal Haplotype

Summary

0
AT RISK
0
CARRIER
168
CLEAR
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Clinical Traits

These clinical traits are valuable to your veterinarian and can inform the clinical decisions and diagnoses they make.

Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) Activity result: Low Normal

Bibby has one copy of a mutation associated with reduced ALT activity as measured on veterinary blood chemistry panels. Please inform your veterinarian that Bibby has this genotype, as ALT is often used as an indicator of liver health and Bibby is likely to have a lower than average resting ALT activity. As such, an increase in Bibby’s ALT activity could be evidence of liver damage, even if it is within normal limits by standard ALT reference ranges.

Genetic Health Conditions

A genetic health condition indicates a genetic mutation that increases the risk that an animal develops a specific disease.

Not At Risk

Good news! Bibby did not test positive for any of the genetic diseases that Embark screens for.

It is still important to let your veterinarian know these results because they could help guide Bibby’s diagnosis and treatment if she gets sick in the future.

Not A Carrier

Good news! Bibby is not a carrier for any of the genetic diseases that Embark tests for.

Common Conditions

Good news! Bibby tested clear for 3 genetic conditions that are common in her breed.
Condition List

GM1 Gangliosidosis
(GLB1 Exon 15 Alaskan Husky Variant)
Multisystem

An early onset form of lysosomal storage disease, this can cause affected dogs to display neurologic signs as puppies or young adults. These include partial or total visi…

Alaskan Husky Encephalopathy, Subacute Necrotizing Encephalomyelopathy
(SLC19A3)
Brain and Spinal Cord

This acute onset disease can cause neurologic symptoms in puppies and young adult Alaskan Huskies. Symptoms include seizures, weakness, difficulty chewing or swallowing, …

Degenerative Myelopathy
(SOD1A)
Brain and Spinal Cord

A disease of mature dogs, this is a progressive degenerative disorder of the spinal cord that can cause muscle wasting and gait abnormalities. Affected dogs do not usuall…

Other Conditions:
Clear of 165

Bibby is clear of 165 other genetic diseases that Embark tests for.

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Traits

Maternal Haplotype

Paternal Haplotype

Explore the genetics behind your dog’s appearance, size, and genetic diversity.

Base Coat Color

Dark or Light Fur
E (Extension) Locus
Light colored fur (cream to red)
Brown or Black Pigment
B (Brown) Locus
Likely black colored nose/feet
Color Dilution
D (Dilute) Locus
Dark (non-dilute) skin

Coat Color Modifiers

Hidden Patterning
K (Dominant Black) Locus
No impact on coat color
Body Pattern
A (Agouti) Locus
No impact on coat pattern
Facial Fur Pattern
E (Extension) Locus
No dark fur anywhere
Saddle Tan
No impact on coat pattern

Other Coat Traits

Furnishings LINKAGE
Likely unfurnished (no mustache, beard, and/or eyebrows)
Coat Length
Likely short or mid-length coat
Shedding
Likely heavy/seasonal shedding
Coat Texture
Likely straight coat
Hairlessness (Xolo type) LINKAGE
Very unlikely to be hairless
Hairlessness (Terrier type)
Very unlikely to be hairless
Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 2 LINKAGE
Likely not albino

Other Body Features

Muzzle Length
Likely medium or long muzzle
Tail Length
Likely normal-length tail
Hind Dew Claws
Unlikely to have hind dew claws
Back Muscling & Bulk (Large Breed)
Likely normal muscling
Eye Color LINKAGE
Less likely to have blue eyes

Body Size

Body Size 1
Larger
Body Size 2
Larger
Body Size 3
Larger
Body Size 4
Larger
Body Size 5
Larger

Performance

Altitude Adaptation
Normal altitude tolerance

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Maternal Haplotype

Paternal Haplotype

Through Bibby’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace her mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that her ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

A2

Haplotype

A29a

Map

A2

Bibby’s Haplogroup

A2 is a very ancient maternal line. Most likely it was one of the major female lines that contributed to the very first domesticated dogs in Central Asia about 15,000 years ago. Some of the line stayed in Central Asia to the present day, and frequently appear as Tibetan Mastiffs and Akitas. Those that escaped the mountains of Central Asia sought out other cold spots, and are now found among Alaskan Malamutes and Siberian Huskies. This lineage is also occasionally found in several common Western breeds, such as German Shepherds and Labrador Retrievers. Curiously, all New Guinea Singing Dogs descend from this line. These are an ancient and very interesting breed found in the mountains of Papua New Guinea. Unfortunately, they are now endangered. They are closely related to the Australian dingo, so you could say its cousins are dingos! This line is also common in village dogs in Southeast and East Asia. Unlike many other lineages, A2 did not spread across the whole world, probably because it did not have the opportunity to hitch its wagon to European colonialism - or because these dogs just prefer hanging out in mountains, tundras, islands, and other hard-to-reach places!

A29a

Bibby’s Haplotype

Part of the A2 haplogroup, this haplotype occurs most commonly in Siberian Huskies, Alaskan Malamutes, Labrador Retrievers, and village dogs from Alaska.

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

Dingos commonly possess this haplogroup.

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Paternal Haplotype

This 'Paternal Haplotype' tab is for deep ancestral lineage going back thousands of years.

For recent ancestry—"What breeds did my dog inherit from her mom and dad?"—please refer to the Breed, Family Tree, or Summary tab.

The Paternal Haplotype refers to a dog’s deep ancestral lineage stretching back thousands of years, before there were any distinct breeds of dog. We determine the Paternal Haplotype by looking at a dog’s Y-chromosome—but not all dogs have Y-chromosomes!

Why can’t we show Paternal Haplotype results for female dogs?

All dogs have two sex chromosomes. Female dogs have two X-chromosomes (XX) and male dogs have one X-chromosome and one Y-chromosome (XY). When having offspring, female (XX) dogs always pass an X-chromosome to their puppy. Male (XY) dogs can pass either an X or a Y-chromosome—if the puppy receives an X-chromosome from its father then it will be a female (XX) puppy and if it receives a Y-chromosome then it will be a male (XY) puppy. As you can see, Y-chromosomes are passed down from a male dog only to its male offspring.

Since Bibby is a female (XX) dog, she has no Y-chromosome for us to analyze and determine a paternal haplotype.

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Maternal Haplotype