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Amal (Hope)

Northern East African Village Dog

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“Amal (Hope) was rescued from the streets of Cairo. She is considered an Egyptian Baladi dog.”

Place of Birth

Cairo, Cairo Governorate, Egypt

Current Location

Leawood, Kansas, USA

From

Cairo, Egypt

This dog has been viewed and been given 14 wags

Registration

Microchip: 24PetWatch.com 992000000100753

Genetic Breed Result

Northern East African Village Dog

Village dog trace breed analysis

Village dogs often have short stretches of DNA that match purebred dogs, due to a distant common ancestor or a more recent mating between a purebred and a village dog. Amal (Hope) has short stretches of DNA in common with this breed:

What exactly are village dogs?

Village dogs are the free-breeding, free-roaming “outside” dogs found around the world living in and around human settlements big and small. They are also known as island dogs, pariah dogs, or free-ranging dogs.

Many village dog populations precede the formation of modern breed dogs.

They make up about 3/4s of the billion or so dogs living on Earth today. They serve as trash cleaners, sentinels, and even sometimes companions while still retaining much of their freedom. Embark’s founders have studied village dogs on six continents since 2007 in their efforts to understand the history, traits, and health of the domestic dog. Through this work they have discovered the origins of the dog in Central Asia, and also identified genetic regions involved in domestication and local adaptation, such as the high altitude adaptation in Himalayan dogs. Embark is the only dog DNA test that includes diverse village dogs from around the world in its breed reference panel.

So what breeds are in my dog?

In a very real sense, Northern East African Village Dog is the actual breed of your dog. Village dogs like this descend from separate lines of dogs than the lines that have been bred into standardized breeds like Labradors and Poodles. If you trace the family tree of Amal (Hope) back, you won’t find any ancestral dogs that are part of any of those standardized breeds.

Northern East African Village Dog

Northern East African village dogs were instrumental in dog evolution. From this region, dogs spread across Africa and Europe, where eventually they were bred to become most of the hundreds of dog breeds we know today.

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Changes to this dog’s profile
  • On 8/18/2021 changed name from "Amal" to "Amal (Hope)"

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Village dogs have lived just about everywhere across the world for thousands of years. Long before there were any recognized dog breeds, there were village dogs around the fires and trash heaps of early human villages. Amal (Hope) is part of this ancient heritage, not descended from a specific breed, but continuing the ancient lineage of dogs that were our first, best friends.

Embark's co-founders studied Village Dogs on six continents in their efforts to understand the history, traits, and health of the domestic dog. Through this work, they discovered evidence for the origins of the dog in Central Asia , and they also identified genetic regions involved in domestication and local adaptation. As a result, Embark has the largest Village Dog reference panel of any canine genetics company.

We compared Amal (Hope)'s DNA to a global panel of thousands of village dogs. This plot highlights regions of the world where Amal (Hope)'s DNA is most similar to those village dogs. The areas of darkest red reflect the greatest similarity to our village dog panel.

Village Dog Map
Similarity to village dog groups around the world. Darker red reflects greater similarity.

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Health Summary

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Amal (Hope) has one variant that you should let your vet know about.

ALT Activity

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Amal (Hope) inherited one copy of the variant we tested

Why is this important to your vet?

Amal (Hope) has one copy of a variant associated with reduced ALT activity as measured on veterinary blood chemistry panels. Please inform your veterinarian that Amal (Hope) has this genotype, as ALT is often used as an indicator of liver health and Amal (Hope) is likely to have a lower than average resting ALT activity. As such, an increase in Amal (Hope)’s ALT activity could be evidence of liver damage, even if it is within normal limits by standard ALT reference ranges.

What is ALT Activity?

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a clinical tool that can be used by veterinarians to better monitor liver health. This result is not associated with liver disease. ALT is one of several values veterinarians measure on routine blood work to evaluate the liver. It is a naturally occurring enzyme located in liver cells that helps break down protein. When the liver is damaged or inflamed, ALT is released into the bloodstream.

Breed-Relevant Genetic Conditions

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Through Amal (Hope)’s mitochondrial DNA we can trace her mother’s ancestry back to where dogs and people first became friends. This map helps you visualize the routes that her ancestors took to your home. Their story is described below the map.

Haplogroup

A1c

Haplotype

A278/334

Map

A1c

Amal (Hope)’s Haplogroup

About 15,000 years ago in Central Asia, females from this lineage were some of the wolves domesticated as the original dogs. Since then, dogs from this lineage traveled through the Middle East to Africa, where they became some of the African village dogs and basenjis, which are a native African breed of dog. There are also still pockets of dogs with this lineage that remained in Asia or places along the route to Africa, such as India. This lineage has also been found in the Borzoi, a Russian dog breed.

A278/334

Amal (Hope)’s Haplotype

Part of the large A1c haplogroup, this haplotype occurs most frequently in Basenjis. It’s a rare find!

Some other Embark dogs with this haplotype:

The presence of A1c in a Borzoi indicates a deep history of this lineage in Eurasia

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The Paternal Haplotype reveals a dog’s deep ancestral lineage, stretching back thousands of years to the original domestication of dogs.

Are you looking for information on the breeds that Amal (Hope) inherited from her mom and dad? Check out her breed breakdown.

Paternal Haplotype is determined by looking at a dog’s Y-chromosome—but not all dogs have Y-chromosomes!

Why can’t we show Paternal Haplotype results for female dogs?

All dogs have two sex chromosomes. Female dogs have two X-chromosomes (XX) and male dogs have one X-chromosome and one Y-chromosome (XY). When having offspring, female (XX) dogs always pass an X-chromosome to their puppy. Male (XY) dogs can pass either an X or a Y-chromosome—if the puppy receives an X-chromosome from its father then it will be a female (XX) puppy and if it receives a Y-chromosome then it will be a male (XY) puppy. As you can see, Y-chromosomes are passed down from a male dog only to its male offspring.

Since Amal (Hope) is a female (XX) dog, she has no Y-chromosome for us to analyze and determine a paternal haplotype.

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